Cases reported "Acute Disease"

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1/699. central nervous system T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder in a patient with chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    PURPOSE: central nervous system (CNS)-T cell lymphoproliferative disorder (T-LPD) developing during the course of chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (CAEBV) infection is reported. patients AND methods: CAEBV was diagnosed in a 14-month-old boy with fever, cytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly, and abnormal high titers of anti-Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibodies. At 8 years of age, he had a splenectomy because of progressive disease. RESULTS: After 27 months of clinical remission, muscle weakness and paresthesia developed. magnetic resonance imaging of his brain showed spotty T2 prolongation in left parietal, bilateral frontal, and temporal white matter with meningeal enhancement. brain biopsy revealed the cerebral infiltration of CD3 , CD4 , CD8-, CD45RO , CD56-, and EBV-encoded rna 1 cells. CONCLUSIONS: The CNS involvement of EBV-associated T-LPD is a rare but serious complication in CAEBV without known underlying immunodeficiency.
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2/699. Postpartum onset of acute heart failure possibly due to postpartum autoimmune myocarditis. A report of three cases.

    autoimmune diseases, especially autoimmune thyroid disease, frequently develop after delivery due to the immune rebound mechanism. Most cases have transient dysfunction of affected organs. Cardiac dysfunction developed after delivery is called postpartum or peripartum cardiomyopathy. However, the aetiology of the disease is not clarified yet. Here we report three cases that developed acute heart failure in the postpartum period. One was complicated with an atrioventricular block and postpartum autoimmune thyroiditis. All patients recovered to normal cardiac function or pre-attack condition after 1 month of therapy with conventional drugs and bed rest. All three had positive antiheart antibody detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay, and one had antibody to heart myosin detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, one of two patients examined revealed lymphocytic infiltration by endomyocardial biopsy. antibodies to 26 viruses were not elevated significantly during the first 2 weeks after admission in any case. It is strongly suggested that heart failure is induced by postpartum autoimmune myocarditis, and thus clinicians should be aware of this disease.
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keywords = virus
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3/699. Evolution of acute cytomegalovirus gastritis to chronic gastrointestinal dysmotility in a nonimmunocompromised adult.

    A 30-year-old nonimmunocompromised woman developed chronic gastrointestinal dysmotility as a consequence of acute cytomegalovirus infection. The acute nature of the infection was documented by high immunoglobulin m antibody titer to cytomegalovirus (CMV); the chronicity of the infection was shown by persistence of CMV in biopsy specimens of her gastrointestinal tract over a 21/2-year period. Gastrointestinal dysmotility was confirmed by delayed emptying on gastric nuclear scintigraphy, by retrograde propagation of migrating myoelectric complexes on small intestinal manometry, and by presence of tachygastria on cutaneous electrogastrography. The patient's nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and early satiety resolved after a short course of treatment with leuprolide acetate but returned after medication was discontinued. Her symptoms persisted despite clearance of CMV from the gastrointestinal tract after a course of treatment with ganciclovir. These observations show that acute CMV infection can cause gastrointestinal dysmotility in nonimmunocompromised individuals and that the disturbance in gastrointestinal motor function may persist for years after viral infection of the gastrointestinal tract has been eradicated.
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4/699. Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder mimicking a nonspecific lymphocytic pleural effusion in a bone marrow transplant recipient. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: Serous effusions are rare complications of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and result mainly from infections or tumor relapse. CASE: We report a case of posttransplantation lympho-proliferative disorder (PTLD) revealed by cytodiagnostic examination of serous effusions in a BMT recipient. The effusion was initially considered reactive, but morphologic, immunocytologic and molecular studies subsequently revealed PTLD. CONCLUSION: This case demonstrates the importance of cytologic examination of effusions in BMT or organ recipients. Since most PTLDs are Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders and T cells predominate in reactive effusions, appropriate initial immunostaining, including CD3, CD79a and EBV latent membrane protein, should aid in their early detection.
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5/699. thalidomide in children undergoing bone marrow transplantation: series at a single institution and review of the literature.

    thalidomide has one of the most notorious drug histories because of its teratogenicity. Its widespread use in the 1960s led to a worldwide epidemic of phocomelia in inborns; this in turn led to its complete ban in most of the world. However, it has now been licensed for selected indications including graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) after bone marrow transplantation, wasting associated with tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus infection, and leprosy. Little is known, however, about its use in children in these settings. Therefore, we report our experience and review the literature on thalidomide in children for GVHD after bone marrow transplantation. We studied 6 patients, 2 with chronic GVHD, 2 with acute GVHD, and 2 with acute GVHD progressing into chronic disease. One patient with chronic GVHD had a complete response, whereas the other had a partial response. Side effects consisted primarily of sedation and constipation, which are reported previously and well known side effects. None had neuropathy. One patient had rash, eosinophilia, and early pancreatitis that began shortly after initiation of thalidomide, persisted, and resolved only after discontinuation of thalidomide. eosinophilia and pancreatitis are both previously unreported side effects or associated findings of thalidomide treatment. review of the literature reveals three major studies of thalidomide in GVHD; of these two included children and adults together, and one in which age range of patients was not mentioned. In addition, four series of children receiving only thalidomide are reported. These series contained 1 to 14 patients each. Results show efficacy in at least 50% of children with chronic GVHD and little or no efficacy in children with exclusively acute GVHD. Side effects are similar to those reported in adults and consisted mostly of sedation and constipation, both of which subsided over time and resolved after discontinuing the drug. We speculate on the reasons for which thalidomide is more effective in chronic, compared with acute, GVHD in children, and make recommendations for future study.
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6/699. Acute measles encephalitis of the delayed type.

    An acute measles encephalitis with epilepsia partialis continua occurred three months after measles in a previously healthy child with no detectable immunological defect. Levels of measles antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid were high, and tubular inclusions of the type seen in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis were found in nerve cell nuclei. A communicating high-pressure hydrocephalus developed in the later stage of the disease. This case demonstrates that measles encephalitis of the delayed type should systematically be considered in children with acute encephalitis.
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ranking = 0.5844437487871
keywords = measles
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7/699. Angiotropic (intravascular) large cell lymphoma of T-cell phenotype presenting as acute appendicitis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    We describe a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome who presented with acute appendicitis but was found to have angiotropic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) by pathologic examination of the appendectomy specimen, without acute inflammation. Very rare cases of angiotropic large cell lymphoma have been reported in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection, and most cases of this rare lymphoma are of B-cell origin, but in this instance immunohistochemical analysis showed a T-cell phenotype.
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keywords = virus
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8/699. Acute cerebellar ataxia with human parvovirus B19 infection.

    A 2 year old boy developed acute cerebellar ataxia in association with erythema infectiosum. During the disease, genomic dna and antibodies against human parvovirus B19 were detected in serum but not in cerebrospinal fluid. parvovirus B19 associated acute cerebellar ataxia might occur due to transient vascular reaction in the cerebellum during infection.
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9/699. Acute gastroenteritis in children.

    BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis is a common childhood illness. Most cases are caused by rotavirus infection. OBJECTIVE: This article discusses the classic presentation of gastroenteritis in children, which includes a short history of vomiting followed by diarrhoea. DISCUSSION: dehydration is the main problem in children with gastroenteritis, and severe dehydration is a medical emergency. Mild to moderately dehydrated children can be safely treated at home with oral rehydration therapy, however parents require careful explanation of the disease, its course and potential complications. Early reintroduction of usual foods (breast milk, formula or solids) has been shown to shorten the illness. Babies may need to be reviewed within 8 hours and older children within a day.
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10/699. Acute generalized varicella zoster in the setting of preexisting generalized erythema.

    We report a 5-year-old girl who initially had generalized erythema from scarlet fever. Four days later she developed sheets of monomorphous vesicles in the areas of erythema. A Tzanck smear of a vesicle base showed multinucleated giant cells, and viral culture grew varicella zoster virus, confirming a clinical diagnosis of varicella. This case illustrates that, with a background of preexisting erythema, varicella may present in an atypical manner.
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