Cases reported "Acute-Phase Reaction"

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1/18. Translocation (4;15)(p16;q24): a novel reciprocal translocation in a patient with BCR/ABL negative myeloproliferative syndrome progressing to blastic phase.

    A patient with BCR/ABL negative myeloproliferative syndrome with a 46,XY,del(3)(q21), t(4;15)(p16;q24) karyotype is described. fluorescence in situ hybridization performed with chromosomes 4 and 15 painting probes confirmed a novel reciprocal (4;15) translocation. The absence of crkl tyrosine phosphorylation, no activation of the abl kinase as measured by autophosphorylation, and a normal-size abl transcript suggest an alternative mechanism for leukemogenesis to that operative in Ph positive BCR/ABL positive chronic myeloid leukemia. A number of genes potentially relevant to tumorigenesis, some involving the ras signaling pathway, map to the 4p16 and 15q24 chromosome regions.
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2/18. Stereotactic radiosurgery. VIII. The classification of postradiation reactions.

    Postradiation reactions in the CNS are well described and catalogued in the conventional radiotherapy literature; acute, subacute and late CNS reactions are recognized. Tumours predispose to these normal tissue reactions by the oedema and pressure epiphenomena that occur in their environs, and probably by other mechanisms associated with tissue breakdown. That late normal tissue reactions (particularly permanent late sequelae--universally referred to as 'necrosis') occur in the normal nervous system is in the complication list of every radiosurgery centre. This article, for the first time, places postradiosurgery observations within or without the existing classification of reactions, and draws attention to the fact that previous 'radiosurgery risk factor' papers in the literature may be wrong to pool different 'reactions' in the formulation of risk formulae for normal brain damage following single shot radiotherapy. Acute reactions occur in the same manner as described for conventional radiotherapy, being a transient swelling phenomenon that occurs 12-48 h after therapy; they are fully reversible and do not usually augur late problems; routine administration of short duration steroids around the time of radiosurgery may prevent or delay the clinical signs. Subacute reactions occur 3-10 months later (a later time than the subacute reactions following conventionally fractionated radiotherapy), and may prove fully or partially reversible, or progress to permanent sequelae; the difference between these and late sequelae (which tend to be permanent themselves) then becomes blurred. That tumour swelling occurs in the subacute phase and is associated with oedema in the surrounding normal brain is an interesting observation (occurring in extra- and intra axial slow-growing tumours); it denotes tumour damage and has not been encountered in the conventionally-fractionated radiotherapy literature. Tumour shrinkage occurs later, with subsidence of the surrounding oedema, and this phenomenon may therefore be regarded (paradoxically) as a good prognostic sign, a point about which the referring clinician should be made aware. Similarly, contrast enhancement in the tumour perimeter at this time reflects a host reactive response and not tumour activity. Persistent clinical neurological signs and MRI changes (best seen on the T2 weighted sequences) beyond 2 years, indicate late damage or reaction. Usually, this represents scarring or coagulative necrosis without mass effect, but if there is a low signal area with mass effect and considerable surrounding oedema, liquefactive necrosis has occurred and (as in the brachytherapy literature) surgical decompression is very occasionally needed.
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3/18. Hypocomplementemic panniculitis with paraprotein.

    Two episodes of severe panniculitis accompanied by fever and an acute phase response were the main clinical features in a patient who had an unusual IgG kappa paraprotein. Both episodes responded promptly to steroids. Complement proteins of the early classical pathway were depleted in the patient's serum, and in vitro experiments indicated that the IgG kappa paraprotein activated complement directly. The association of recurrent panniculitis and paraproteinemia-hypocomplementemia has been described in 2 other patients. It should be recognized since its response to steroids is immediate.
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4/18. TINU syndrome associated with reduced complement levels.

    The TINU syndrome (tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis) was first described by Dobrin et al. in 1975. Since then, more than 50 cases have been documented each with diverse immunopathogenetic and genetic characteristics. The aim of this report is to describe a case of TINU associated with reduced complement levels. We profile a 48-year-old white female with persistently reduced C4 complement levels during the acute phase of the pathology and with an unaltered immunologic profile. Renal biopsy evidenced a significant lymphocytic interstitial infiltration. Immunohistochemical studies of the interstitium infiltrates was positive for the presence of the T (CD3) markers (CD4 > CD8). Steroid therapy yielded a complete regression of the symptomatology with normalization of the complement levels. We suggest that it is possible to hypothesize that the various immunologic alterations associated with TINU, including the transient reduction complement levels, may be secondary to multiple inflammatory mechanisms which express themselves throughout the pathology.
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5/18. Active infective endocarditis due to methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus in the acute phase of infectious mononucleosis.

    A 26-year-old male was treated for acute hepatitis due to Epstein-Barr virus and infectious mononucleosis in our hospital. At 2 weeks after admission, there was relapse with high fever. A blood culture detected methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus. A two-dimensional echocardiogram revealed severe aortic regurgitation and vegetation on the left coronary cusp of the aortic valve. The diagnosis was active infective endocarditis due to methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus in the acute phase of infectious mononucleosis. Following preoperative administration of vancomycin, the aortic valve was replaced with a Carbomedics prosthetic valve. The aortic valve was bicuspid, and the right cusp and non-coronary cusp were conjoined. As the focus of infection was localized to the left coronary cusp, the infected tissue was fully removed with resection of all the cusps. Although fever persisted long after the operation, the blood culture became negative for methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus, and repeated echocardiograms including transesophageal echocardiogram showed no prosthetic valve infection. vancomycin was administered until the c-reactive protein became negative at 45 days after the operation.
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6/18. Proton MR spectroscopy of cerebellitis.

    Single voxel proton MR spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) of the vermis was obtained in two patients with cerebellitis. In the acute phase (1)H-MRS revealed low N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr) and NAA/choline (Cho) and normal Cho/Cr ratios. Decrease of the concentration of NAA was confirmed by quantitative analysis in one patient. The NAA/Cr and NAA/Cho ratios and NAA concentration were increased in (1)H-MRS examinations obtained 10 and 24 months after the acute episode. (1)H-MRS demonstrates reversible metabolite changes in cerebellitis.
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7/18. association of Kawasaki disease and interstitial nephritis.

    renal insufficiency is a rare manifestation of Kawasaki disease. We report a 2.5-year-old boy with Kawasaki disease who developed acute renal failure during the acute phase of his illness. A percutaneous renal biopsy revealed acute interstitial nephritis. No etiological agent could be identified and renal recovery occurred with supportive care alone.
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8/18. Prevention of hepatic infarction as acute-phase complication of TIPS by temporary balloon occlusion in a patient with primary myelofibrosis.

    Severe acute liver dysfunction occurred following transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation in a patient with massive ascites due to portal hypertension associated with primary myelofibrosis. On US and TIPS venography, we considered that the acute liver ischemia was induced by TIPS. To avoid diffuse hepatic infarction and irreversible liver damage, a balloon catheter was inserted transjugularly into the TIPS tract and occluded it to increase portal venous flow toward the peripheral liver parenchyma. The laboratory data indicating hepatic dysfunction were improved after the procedure. We should pay attention to the possible occurrence of acute hepatic ischemia and infarction after TIPS creation even in a case of noncirrhotic portal hypertension. In such cases, temporary balloon occlusion of TIPS is an effective therapeutic method, probably as a result of inducing the development of arterial compensation through the peribiliary plexus.
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9/18. systemic vasculitis: a cause of indeterminate intestinal inflammation.

    OBJECTIVES: Indeterminate intestinal inflammation may result from a variety of inflammatory conditions in addition to ulcerative colitis and crohn disease. The primary systemic vasculitides may present with intestinal inflammation and an indeterminate colitis. We set out to describe a series of children with primary systemic vasculitis who initially presented with clinical features suggestive of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to establish criteria that might help discriminate between IBD and primary systemic vasculitis. methods: Ten children (6 boys, median age at presentation 8.9 years, range 0.9-14.5 years) satisfied inclusion criteria. RESULTS: All had abdominal pain, weight loss, diarrhea (6 of 10 bloody) and laboratory evidence of a severe acute phase response. Extraintestinal clinical features included vasculitic rash, renal impairment, myalgia, testicular pain and polyarthritis. endoscopy showed vascular changes or other macroscopic findings suggestive of vasculitis in 5 of 10 patients. Gut histology revealed indeterminate chronic inflammatory mucosal changes and one patient with small artery fibrinoid necrosis in the submucosal vessels. Extraintestinal biopsy was performed in 6 patients and had a higher yield for the demonstration of vasculitis than intestinal biopsy. The results of selective visceral angiography was suggestive of vasculitis in all patients, but was normal in 7 cases of treatment-unresponsive classic IBD. Treatment comprised corticosteroid and azathioprine in all patients. cyclophosphamide was given to 7 of 10 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Extraintestinal manifestations and inflammatory responses that may be disproportionate to the degree of intestinal inflammation provide clues to the presence of an underlying primary systemic vasculitis, and these data suggest that selective visceral angiography plays a key role in the diagnosis of vasculitis in this context. It is important to identify and treat any vasculitic component because failure to do so may result in consequential morbidity or mortality.
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10/18. antibodies to an Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen synthetic peptide in infectious mononucleosis. Report of two cases.

    The Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen (EBNA-1) contains a region of repeating glycine and alanine amino acids. It has been shown that this region contains a major epitope of EBNA-1. With well-characterized sequential sera from two cases of acute infectious mononucleosis, a specific IgM response was detected to the EBNA-1 synthetic peptide by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Conversely, an IgG response was observed in the convalescent phase of the illness with a progressive decline of the IgM antibodies. This response was observed with heterophil-positive and heterophil-negative EBV/IM. The peptide-specific serologic response was confirmed by immunoblotting, the serial serum samples on extracts of EBV transformed B-cells. There was excellent correlation between the antipeptide ELISA and blotting techniques.
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