Cases reported "Adenocarcinoma"

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11/38. Immunoreactive myelin basic protein in tumor cells associated with carcinomatous neuropathy.

    Tumors from two patients with carcinomatous neuropathy were studied with an immunohistochemical method using anti-myelin basic protein (anti-MBP) sera. In both cases, immunoreactive MBP was clearly demonstrated in some of the tumor cells, which were widely distributed either singly or, more often, in clusters. The staining intensity varied from cell to cell. An autoimmune mechanism to nervous elements has been suggested in the pathogenesis of carcinomatous neuropathy. MBP is known to be a highly specific and potent antigen that can induce allergic neuritis in animals. In one patient the progressively worsening neurologic condition rapidly improved after gastrectomy removed the carcinoma. It is possible that immunoreactive MBP in tumor cells may function as an "antigen" in the development of carcinomatous neuropathy.
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12/38. thrombosis-inducing activity found in plasma from two patients with advanced lung cancer.

    In 2 patients with lung cancer, the coagulation system was supposed to be activated by the findings of elevation of plasma fibrinogen, fibrinogen degradation product (FDP) and/or peripheral platelet counts. The plasma thromboxane b2 and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha levels in 1 patient were measured and proved to be 160 and 20 times higher than the control level, respectively. When 0.5 ml of plasma from each patient was given intravenously into Balb/c mice, the mice died within 5 min. The multiple thrombosis mainly composed of aggregated platelets and present in the lungs of these mice probably led to death of these animals. On the contrary, no such activity was found in plasma from healthy subjects or other patients with lung cancer who showed no manifestations of enhancement in the coagulation system.
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13/38. Extensive bone marrow necrosis in patients with cancer and tumor necrosis factor activity in plasma.

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a macrophage secretory protein produced by peripheral blood monocytes from patients with cancer, has been shown to possess cytotoxicity toward tumor cells in vitro. TNF in the blood of individuals with cancer is usually not detectable except with extremely sensitive radioimmunoassay or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods. We have encountered two patients with the rare syndrome of extensive bone marrow necrosis in association with cancer. The first patient presented with marrow failure secondary to necrosis and was found to have adenocarcinoma in thoracic lymph nodes, lung, and marrow lymphatics at autopsy. plasma tested at two dilutions (1:200 and 1:2,000) contained TNF at a concentration of 8.3 ng/ml, or 80 U/ml by a cytotoxicity assay using LM cells. The presence of TNF was confirmed with immunoblotting. The second patient had a poorly differentiated lymphoid tumor involving bone marrow, pancytopenia, and marrow necrosis. The plasma cytotoxicity assay indicated the presence of 0.7 ng/ml or 7 U/ml TNF. TNF was not detectable in plasma from six other patients with untreated cancer involving bone or bone marrow using either of our methods. The levels of TNF in the two patients with marrow necrosis were greater than those previously measured by others in patients with cancer but were comparable to those noted in patients with lethal sepsis. Since large doses of TNF have been shown to cause organ necrosis in animals, the data presented here are consistent with TNF involvement in mediating the observed marrow necrosis in our patients.
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14/38. collagen fiber formation and proliferation as a mechanism of cancer prevention and regression induced by extract from mycobacterium tuberculosis: correlation between clinical observation and animal experiments.

    Administration of polysaccharides extracted from human mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli, Aoyama B strain (SSM) produced regression of breast cancer in 2 women. Biopsies of tumor nodules from these patients revealed intense proliferation of collagen fibers from the stromal cells. SSM apparently promoted the proliferation and maturation of collagen fibers from the stromal cells and matrix destroyed by tumor infiltration. transplantation of human tumor cell lines into athymic mice resulted in the formation of collagen fibers surrounding the cancer cells. SSM promoted the proliferation and maturation of collagen fibers encasing the tumor cells. The intensity of collagen fiber formation varied with the kind of cancer cells used. The degree of proliferation of collagen fibers correlated with the antitumor effects of SSM. There was hardly any migration of lymphocytes, monocytes, and macrophages in the affected sites. It is interpreted that SSM stimulates the proliferation and maturation of collagen fibers in the host as a major mechanism of its antitumor property. When examined by circular dichroism this proliferation was found to be dependent upon changes in the molecular structure of the substances which make up the cell membrane. Fibronectin was presumed to be important among these substances.
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15/38. Electrolytic tissue destruction and external beam irradiation of the lung. An experimental and clinical investigation.

    In order to evaluate possible benefits of local therapy of lung tumors--electrolysis at Pt-electrodes percutaneously inserted in the tumor, followed by radiation therapy--6 pigs were used as test objects. Two died of lung hemorrhage due to too fast electrolysis causing lung rupture but the other 4 survived when electrolysis was performed at a lower speed. No complication was observed of the combination of electrolysis and external beam irradiation. One human primary lung tumor was treated and probably destroyed by two electrolytic procedures and irradiation to 64 Gy. The evidence of the limited series of animal experiments and of single human tumor case would indicate that further investigations seem worthwhile.
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16/38. Reversible osmotic blood-brain barrier disruption in humans: implications for the chemotherapy of malignant brain tumors.

    The blood-brain barrier seems to be an important factor in drug access to malignant brain tumors. Successful experimental reversible disruption of the blood-brain barrier in animals provided the basis for a clinical evaluation of osmotic disruption in five patients with primary and metastatic malignant brain tumors. Good to excellent blood-brain barrier disruption was achieved in four patients with a single nontransient complication, a superficial wound infection at the burr hole site in the first patient. Reversible, transient osmotic barrier disruption was achieved 15 times in five patients without additional toxicity. Computed tomography and radionuclide brain imaging were shown to be useful noninvasive monitors of the adequacy and extent of barrier disruption. These studies also provide further evidence that the barrier is at least partially intact in human tumors because in one patient a metastsis was seen only after barrier disruption.
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17/38. radiation induced cancer: a report of 10 cases.

    Ionizing radiations have been shown to be carcinogenic to man as well as experimental animals. Malignancies following therapeutic radiation occur rarely. Over the past 10 years the authors recorded 10 cases of tumours in irradiated tissues. 3 occurred in patients irradiated for nasopharyngeal carcinoma, 3 were irradiated for tuberculosis adenitis, 2 for carcinoma of the cervix, 1 for carcinoma of the breast and 1 for basal cell carcinoma. The latent period for tumour induction following the irradiation varied from 5 years to 31 years. All these cases showed no evidence of recurrence or metastases of the original primary lesion; and the histology of the second primary differed from the first. Evidence of radiation damage was seen in all cases except for 2 patients who were treated for tuberculosis adenitis. The doses received varied from 900r to about, 9000r. Among the tumours produced, there were 3 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral & postcricoid region, 2 cases of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid, 2 cases of adenocarcinoma of the rectum, 1 case of adenocarcinoma of the ethmoid, 1 case of osteosarcoma of the mandible and 1 case of extraskeletal osteosarcoma. The clinical features of these cases are discussed and other cases reported in the literature are reviewed.
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18/38. Implication of plasma free hemoglobin in massive clostridial hemolysis.

    Prolonged tissue oxygenation and maintenance of intravascular oncotic pressure are severely impaired with the absence of an effective RBC mass. We recently encountered a patient with a nondetectable hematocrit value (0%) attributed to clostridium perfringens hemolysis. The patient maintained normal BP, tissue oxygenation, and mentation and survived longer than four hours, despite ineffective transfusion therapy. plasma free hemoglobin was responsible for the preservation of tissue oxygenation, intravascular oncotic pressure, and pH. Existing studies in animals support stroma-free hemoglobin as an effective blood product in humans.
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19/38. Tumor directed antibody and carcinoembryonic antigen in the glomeruli of a patient with gastric carcinoma.

    A patient dying of gastric carcinoma was one of a group of cancer patients examined for the presence of glomerular immune complex deposits not associated with the nephrotic syndrome. The deposits were distributed in the mesangial and subendothelial regions. This distribution is found in experimental animals with neoplasia and glomerulopathy as well as in over 30 per cent of humans with cancer. Immunofluorescence showed IgG and C3 in the patient's glomeruli. carcinoembryonic antigen was identified in the patient's glomeruli by the immunoperoxidase staining method. An IgG antibody was eluted from the kidney and found to be reactive with the patient's tumor, as well as another patient's colonic carcinoma. This reactivity was blocked by preincubation of the tumor substrate with anticarcinoembryonic antigen. Thus, both a tumor associated antigen and a corresponding antibody were shown to be contained in the glomerular deposits. It is concluded that circulating immune complexes of high molecular weight containing carcinoembryonic antigen produced by the gastric carcinoma led to the formation of subendothelial deposits without significant renal damage. This is in contrast to the usual finding of membranous glomerulonephritis among cancer patient with the nephrotic syndrome and more closely resembles the animal models. Whereas tumor reactive antibodies can be found in the glomeruli of patients with cancer, a specific tumor associated antigen to which the antibody is reactive has only occasionally been demonstrated.
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20/38. Red cell fragmentation in human disease (a light and scanning electron microscope study).

    Although the mechanism of schizocyte formation has been amply documented in animal experiments and in in-vitro models, the fragmentation encounter between flowing red cells and fibrin strands has not previously been successfully demonstrated in human, microangiopathic disease. If blood flow is restored briefly in vitro immediately prior to tissue fixation, the instant of red cell fragmentation can be captured. Examination of tissue specimens fixed in this manner shows a pathophysiologic process that amplifies the findings previously described in other studies. In the patient under study, the microangiopathic process was widespread in all specimens of pulmonary and renal tissue that had been fixed after brief restoration of blood flow. Small arteries as well as the true microcirculation of both organs were involved. The microangiopathic process in the small arteries and arterioles presented as a partially occlusive thrombus of characteristic histology. The pulmonary capillaries contained linear fibrin microclots festooned with distorted and partially fragmented red cells. The microcirculation of the kidney showed the same findings as well as amorphous, sludged, occlusive red cell masses, particularly in the renal medulla.
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