Cases reported "Adenocarcinoma"

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1/46. dna mismatch repair deficiency in curatively resected sextuple primary cancers in different organs: a molecular case report.

    A male patient synchronously or metachronously underwent six curative resections after diagnoses of cancers in the rectum, urinary bladder, stomach, colon, liver and lung. Five cancers, excluding early colon cancer, were analyzed for instability in seven microsatellite markers and in transforming growth factor beta type II receptor, insulin-like growth factor ii receptor and BAX. All analyzed cancers had replication errors and instability in at least one target gene. These results suggest that abnormal dna mismatch repair system plays a major role in the occurrence of multiple primary cancers in this case.
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ranking = 1
keywords = microsatellite, instability
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2/46. genetics and colorectal cancer (HNPCC) in adolescence. A case report.

    The authors report a case of non-polyposis colon cancer in a seventeen year old female without prior polyposis or family history. Since it was the first case in this family, HNPCC was suspected. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the tumor revealed changes in four polymorphic regions. Analysis of two of them, indicated the loss of genetic material confirming instability suggestive of HNPCC. The patient underwent ileorectal anastomosis and adjuvant chemotherapy with a good outcome. The authors discuss the importance of family history, genetic and immunohistochemistry studies, and the instability of microsatellites in adolescents with colorectal cancer.
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ranking = 1
keywords = microsatellite, instability
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3/46. Elongation of (CTG)n repeats in myotonic dystrophy protein kinase gene in tumors associated with myotonic dystrophy patients.

    Length of (CTG)n triplet repeats in myotonic dystrophy protein kinase gene (DMPK) was estimated in tumors, normal tissues of the same organs, muscles, and leukocytes from three myotonic dystrophy (DM) patients and a non-DM patient. Using cDNA 25 as a probe, a Southern blot analysis of EcoRI- and BglI-digested DNA from these tissues demonstrated the longest expansion of the repeats in the tumors of DM patients. In all tissues from a non-DM patient, the repeat length was confirmed to be stable by PCR analysis. Our data suggest that expanded (CTG)n repeat in tumor tissues may have increased the instability. This study emphasizes the importance of a long-term prospective study on the incidence of tumors in DM to clarify the pathological interrelation between the two entities.
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ranking = 0.02425664556638
keywords = instability
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4/46. The use of microsatellite instability in the distinction between synchronous endometrial and colonic adenocarcinomas.

    The association of endometrial carcinoma with other gynecologic neoplasms, especially ovarian and fallopian tube carcinoma, has been well documented and is usually interpreted as a result of a field defect. Sporadic synchronous primary carcinomas occurring in the endometrium and colon are extremely rare, especially in the absence of the familial genetic abnormalities seen in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal carcinoma (HNPCC) syndrome, and may present a diagnostic dilemma. Two cases of synchronous adenocarcinomas of the endometrium and colon were studied for genetic abnormalities and differences to test for the presence of two primary tumors. Primary tumors, metastases, and normal tissues were microdissected from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. PCR amplification was performed for microsatellite DNA markers on chromosome 17q and 11q13. The colonic tumors were moderately and poorly differentiated, invasive, nonmucinous adenocarcinomas, whereas one uterine tumor was endometrioid adenocarcinoma and the other was papillary serous carcinoma. Although microsatellite instability, as evidenced by changes in the lengths of the amplified PCR products, was detected at 17q and 11q13 loci in the uterine and colonic neoplasms, the patterns of instability differed between the two primary tumor sites. Moreover, the lymph node metastasis in one colonic tumor had genetic alterations that differed from that of the primary tumor. In both patients, the molecular studies suggested the presence of two synchronous primary tumors. Molecular techniques may assist in distinguishing two separate primaries by determining the contraction and expansion of microsatellite regions in DNA obtained by microdissection from the primary tumors and associated metastases.
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ranking = 77.662675970823
keywords = microsatellite instability, microsatellite, instability
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5/46. adenocarcinoma of colon differentiating as dome epithelium of gut-associated lymphoid tissue.

    AIMS: An early adenocarcinoma of the ascending colon was confined to a mass of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). The first description of an adenocarcinoma of colon differentiating as dome epithelium is presented. methods AND RESULTS: A plaque-like carcinoma was identified opposite the ileocaecal valve in an asymptomatic 56-year-old man with a family history of colorectal cancer. Malignant epithelium was confined to a mass of GALT filling but limited to the submucosa. Characterization of the neoplasm was undertaken by means of mucin histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy and assessment of DNA microsatellite instability status. The malignant epithelium comprised well differentiated columnar cells with a microvillous brush border and expressing MUC1, but no goblet cells or expression of MUC2. The demonstration of focal clusters of intraepithelial b-lymphocytes supported the presence of functioning M-cells within the malignant neoplasm. The cancer was DNA microsatellite stable despite the finding of tumour infiltrating lymphocytes. CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence for the origin of colorectal neoplasia from dome epithelium in both experimental models and microreconstruction studies of early adenomas in nonpolypotic human colorectal mucosa. It is suggested that the lymphocyte-rich subset of colorectal cancer that expresses MUC1 but not MUC2 may be differentiating as dome epithelium of gut-associated lymphoid tissue.
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ranking = 16.098575890372
keywords = microsatellite instability, microsatellite, instability
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6/46. microsatellite instability and hMSH2 gene mutation in a triple cancer (colon cancer, endometrial cancer, ovarian cancer) patient in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) kindred.

    A patient who had triple cancer (colon cancer, endometrial cancer, and ovarian cancer) in HNPCC kindred is reported. Her family history revealed the occurrence of colon cancer in her paternal aunt and in two cousins, fulfilling the minimum HNPCC criteria. microsatellite instability analysis revealed replication error (RER) in all cancer lesions at 2 microsatellite loci (D1S191, BAT 40). SSCP analysis suggested germline mutation in exon 2 of the hMSH2 gene. This case showed the importance of complete family-history investigations to identify HNPCC patients. In the near future, definitive diagnosis of HNPCC will be possible on the basis of DNA studies.
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ranking = 1.0727699366991
keywords = microsatellite, instability
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7/46. Detection of adenocarcinoma by urinary microsatellite analysis after augmentation cystoplasty.

    Augmentation cystoplasty is associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer development between 10 and 20 years after augmentation. Using microsatellite analysis, we analyzed urine obtained before surgical resection of the malignant lesion from a patient who developed invasive adenocarcinoma after augmentation cystoplasty. loss of heterozygosity was identified in both urine and tumor samples from this patient. This observation suggests that microsatellite urine analysis may be useful as a monitoring tool for patients after augmentation cystoplasty.
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ranking = 5.7089202532034
keywords = microsatellite
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8/46. Genetic analysis of multiple sporadic colon carcinomas from a single patient.

    At least two separate genetic pathways of carcinogenesis in sporadic colon cancer involving the accumulation of mutations at various genetic loci have been described. About 15% of sporadic colorectal carcinomas arise via a mechanism associated with microsatellite instability (MSI) and mutations in transforming growth factor beta receptor II (TGFbetaRII), insulin-like growth factor ii receptor (IGFIIR) and BAX, whilst the remaining 85% are associated with aneuploidy and gross chromosomal rearrangements. An 81-year-old woman had a sigmoid colon carcinoma resected and 18 months later developed two additional carcinomas of the caecum and transverse colon. To investigate whether there was a common genetic mechanism of carcinogenesis for the three lesions, MSI status was assessed, TGFbetaRII, IGFIIR and BAX were analysed for mutations and protein expression of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1) and p53 were studied using immunohistochemistry. The caecal and transverse colonic carcinomas were both MSI positive but different mutations were identified in each lesion. No genetic abnormalities were identified in the sigmoid colonic carcinoma. This suggests that each carcinoma arose via a separate genetic mechanism of carcinogenesis.
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ranking = 15.147089181504
keywords = microsatellite instability, microsatellite, instability
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9/46. Comparison of the genetic alterations in two epithelial collision tumors of the uterine cervix. A report of two cases.

    In a minority of cervical carcinomas, a distinct adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma component can be recognized. These tumors are considered collision tumors; the differential diagnosis is adenosquamous carcinoma. To investigate whether the squamous and adenocarcinoma component are of multiclonal or monoclonal origin, we used loss of heterozygosity (LOH) as a method to establish clonality. Each tumor component of two tumors with a distinct adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma component were microdissected and the presence of LOH was studied for nine chromosomes, i.e., 1, 2, 3, 6, 11, 15, 17, 18, and X, which are known to contain frequent LOH in cervical cancer. The tumor of patient AK13 showed identical LOH in both the adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma tissue with various microsatellite markers on chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 18, and X. For markers on chromosomes 3 and 15, different LOH patterns were found in both components. The squamous epithelium showed LOH on chromosome 3, whereas the adenocarcinoma component had LOH on chromosome 15. For patient AK18 the LOH pattern on chromosomes 6p and 17 was the same in the adenocarcinoma and the squamous cell carcinoma component. The adenocarcinoma component showed additional LOH on chromosomes 6q and chromosome 11q. The tumor of patient AK18 showed common boundaries of LOH in both components on chromosome 17q, between markers D17S578 and D17S250. In conclusion, the squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma components in both tumors most likely have one cell of origin because many genetic alterations are the same in each component. The presence of genetic changes uniquely associated with one of the tumors favors a diversion of developmental pathways.
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ranking = 0.95148670886724
keywords = microsatellite
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10/46. Inclusion of malignant fibrous histiocytoma in the tumour spectrum associated with hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer.

    Sarcomas, including the malignant fibrous histiocytomas (MFHs), are not known to be part of the tumour spectrum of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) as epidemiologically established. Therefore, occurrence of MFH in an HNPCC family may very well be coincidental. HNPCC is associated with germline mutations in dna mismatch repair genes, including the MSH2 gene. We analysed an MFH diagnosed in a 45-year-old male HNPCC patient carrying a germline MSH2 mutation for HNPCC-associated molecular characteristics, to investigate a possible relationship between the tumour and that mutation. DNA analysis revealed microsatellite instability and loss of one MSH2 copy, and immunohistochemistry showed absence of nuclear MSH2 protein staining. To investigate whether this is a common finding in MFH, microsatellite instability and nuclear MSH2 protein staining was tested for in 5 and 6 sporadic MFHs, respectively. None showed microsatellite instability and all stained positively for MSH2. Together, these findings show that in rare cases, MFH may be part of the HNPCC tumour spectrum.
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ranking = 45.441267544513
keywords = microsatellite instability, microsatellite, instability
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