Cases reported "Adenocarcinoma"

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1/53. Collecting (Bellini) duct carcinoma of the kidney--clinical, radiologic and immunohistochemical findings.

    We present clinical and radiological findings in a case of collecting (Bellini) duct carcinoma (CDC). This is a rare and aggressive kidney cancer originating from the distal renal tubule. The patient underwent radical nephrectomy and the pathological report showed trabeculopapillary, partially solid adenocarcinoma infiltrating the renal capsule and sinus. Immunohistochemical, as well as mucinocarminic and PAS staining studies are necessary for diagnosis of CDC. Surprisingly, one year follow-up studies were negative for recurrent disease. Chromosomal findings are usually different from most often diagnosed clear cell renal cell cancers. Findings from the literature are briefly discussed.
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2/53. Sclerosing papillary carcinoma of the thyroid with tubular features.

    A case of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in a twenty-seven year old female is reported. The patient presented with complaints of a goiter and associated dysphagia. Histologically, the tumor was characterized by diffuse growth of branching tubules lined by a single layer of the tumor cells and surrounded by circularly arranged fibrous tissue of variable thickness. Focally, micropapillary projections of the epithelium budding into the lumen of tubules were visible. The cells showed features of PTC (overlapping ground glass nuclei, multiple grooves and pseudoinclusions). Nevertheless, no areas of "classical" PTC were identified. A striking feature was the presence of a severe lymphoplasmocytic infiltrate and the presence of plentiful S-100 protein positive dendritic/langerhans cells. The tumor shares several features with diffuse sclerosing PTC, namely the age and sex of the patient, the infiltrative growth pattern and the presence of severe chronic thyroiditis that is associated with a large number of dendritic/langerhans cells in the background. There are, however, several distinct differences - particularly the absence of massive squamous metaplasia, psammoma bodies, areas of classical PTC, and also lack of invasion of lymphatic vessels. We believe that this tumor represents an unusual example of diffuse sclerosing PTC with special tubular features.
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3/53. cisplatin ototoxicity, increased DPOAE amplitudes, and magnesium deficiency. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions.

    Outer hair cell (OHC) metabolism is blocked by cisplatin. Concurrent changes in the renal handling of magnesium occur because of the damage cisplatin causes to the renal proximal tubule cells within the thick ascending loop of henle. Although there is no evidence of cisplatin within the OHCs, there are significant levels of intracellular calcium, the antagonist to magnesium at the cell membrane. The OHC motile response is dependent on intracellular calcium. When the calcium current is suppressed by an antagonist, the extracellular OHC microphonic potential decreases. magnesium deficiency is known to produce hyperexcitability within the central nervous system, including fatal audiogenic seizures. In addition, increases in the amplitude of the auditory brainstem response wave V occur with aminoglycoside therapy and magnesium deficiency. This paper illustrates the amplitude growth of distortion product otoacoustic emissions in two patients treated with cisplatin and explores the possible underlying reasons why this may be related to magnesium metabolism.
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4/53. Mitotic arrest of endometrial epithelium after paclitaxel therapy for breast cancer.

    We report the histopathologic findings in endometrial curettings from a 31-year-old woman with dysfunctional uterine bleeding who had received paclitaxel therapy for breast carcinoma. paclitaxel, a member of the taxane family of antineoplastic agents that is used in the treatment of breast carcinoma, ovarian carcinoma, and non-small cell lung carcinoma, acts by the simultaneous promotion of tubulin assembly into microtubules and inhibition of microtubule disassembly. The curettings in this case showed fragmented menstrual phase endometrium with striking numbers of mitotic figures. Cell divisions were arrested in metaphase. Glandular epithelial cells showed strong immunoreactivity for bcl-2 and MIB-1. We attribute this marked morphologic effect to paclitaxel-induced mitotic arrest of the endometrium.
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5/53. Progressing prostate carcinoma.

    In the Karnell Cancer Center Grand Rounds, we present a patient who underwent radical prostatectomy with bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy, but had positive margins and subsequently developed local recurrence and then systemic disease. Pathologic and radiologic aspects of his disease are discussed. Therapeutic options at different stages of the disease are examined from the point of view of the urologist, radiation oncologist, and medical oncologist. The surgical portion of the discussion focuses on the selection of initial therapy. Both the selection of surgical candidates and choice of pre- or post-operative therapy in patients can be aided by prognostic tools looking at several variables, including prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, Gleason score of the tumor, seminal vesicle invasion, extracapsular invasion, and lymph node involvement. Low-risk patients can be treated with monotherapy, such as radical prostatectomy, external beam radiation therapy, prostate brachytherapy, or cryosurgical ablation of the prostate. Higher risk patients may require adjuvant and possibly neoadjuvant therapy in addition. The radiation portion of the discussion focuses on the use of radiation therapy as salvage for relapsing disease. Of particular importance is the point that treating high-risk patients whose PSA levels have started to rise but are less than 1 ng/ml results in a long-term PSA control rate as high as 75%, but that limiting the use of salvage radiation therapy to patients with high PSA levels or biopsy confirmation of local recurrence in the face of a negative bone scan results in biochemical long-term control of less than 40%. In the medical oncology part of the discussion, the major focus is on the use of chemotherapy to treat patients whose disease has become resistant to hormonal therapy. mitoxantrone plus a corticosteroid has been found to offer significant palliation for such patients. Combination therapy with estramustine plus taxanes, other microtubule inhibitors, or other agents such as topoisomerase ii inhibitors, has been found to cause shrinkage of measurable soft tissue disease and diminution of serum PSA levels. The development of effective hormonal and chemotherapeutic drugs for treatment of metastatic disease has led to new interest in adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy of high-risk patients.
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6/53. Mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the uterine corpus: CD10 expression as evidence of mesonephric differentiation.

    Mesonephric (wolffian) neoplasms of the female genital tract are infrequent and found in sites where embryonic remnants of wolffian origin are usually detected, such as the uterine cervix, broad ligament, mesosalpinx, and ovary. Their diagnosis is difficult because of the absence of specific immunohistochemical markers for mesonephric derivatives. We present the first report of adenocarcinoma of mesonephric type arising as a purely myometrial mass without endometrial or cervical involvement in the uterine corpus of a 33-year-old woman. The tumor showed a combination of patterns, with retiform areas, ductal foci, and small tubules with eosinophilic secretion, which merged with solid sheets of cells with a sarcomatoid appearance. Immunohistochemically, neoplastic cells were diffusely positive for cytokeratin 7, epithelial membrane antigen, and CD15 and focally positive for BerEP4 and vimentin. A hitherto unreported feature was the positivity for CD10 in neoplastic cells, which was also present in a large number of control tissues obtained from male mesonephric derivatives and female mesonephric remnants and tumors. Furthermore, CD10 was negative in controls from mullerian epithelia of the female genital tract and in their corresponding tumors. Therefore, the expression of CD10 by mesonephric remnants may be useful in establishing the diagnosis of tumors with mesonephric differentiation.
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7/53. Mixed ductal-pancreatic polypeptide-cell carcinoma of the pancreas.

    AIMS: Mixed ductal-endocrine carcinomas of the pancreas are rare tumours with 10 cases reported in the English literature. We report the first case with a polypeptide-cell component. methods AND RESULTS: : The tumour was fortuitously discovered in a 72-year-old woman during the exploration of an endometrial adenocarcinoma. It measured 100 mm and was located in the tail of the pancreas. On microscopic examination two intermingled endocrine and exocrine components were present. The endocrine component consisted of trabeculae and solid nests composed of cells immunoreactive for chromogranin a, synaptophysin and pancreatic polypeptide, but negative for p53 and Bcl-2 proteins. The exocrine component was composed of tubules lined by atypical cylindrical cells immunoreactive for CK19, CEA, p53 and Bcl-2. The stroma of the endocrine component contained amyloid deposits. CONCLUSION: Mixed ductal-endocrine carcinomas of the pancreas are often described in middle-aged patients. The tumours are usually large and located in the head of the pancreas. An endocrine syndrome is rare and the prognosis is often unfavourable. We report the first case of mixed endocrine-exocrine carcinoma of the pancreas with a pancreatic polypeptide-cell component. The histogenesis of mixed carcinoma of the pancreas is still uncertain but the over-expression of p53 and Bcl-2 could play a major role in the neoplastic progression of the ductal component.
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8/53. Pulmonary well-differentiated fetal adenocarcinoma expressing lineage-specific transcription factors (TTF-1 and GATA-6) to respiratory epithelial differentiation: an immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study.

    A case of pulmonary well-differentiated fetal adenocarcinoma was examined with conventional histological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural studies that revealed the distribution of lineage-specific transcription factors (TTF-1 and GATA-6). The patient was a 33-year-old Japanese woman, who underwent resection of the right lower lobe for the lung tumor. The tumor demonstrated an organized histology mimicking the epithelial differentiation of fetal lung with peculiar glands and moruloid cell nests, without mesenchymal proliferation. adenocarcinoma cells forming the atypical glands were similar to the epithelial cells of the branching tubules in the pseudo glandular stage of the fetal lung. Distribution of TTF-1 was observed in many of the nuclei of the adenocarcinoma cells forming the glands. Tumor cells in the morula were primitive epithelial cells with some immunohistochemical neuroendocrine cell differentiation and some of them showed GATA-6-positive stains in the nuclei. In the ultrastructural study, adenocarcinoma cells showed little differentiation toward mucous cells and ciliated cells. Neuroendocrine granules were seen in a few tumor cells in the morula. In the present case, tumor cells forming the peculiar histological, molecular, and ultrastructural constructions showed partial and incomplete mimicry of the morphogenesis of respiratory epithelium.
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9/53. Well differentiated fetal adenocarcinoma of the lung in a 29 year old woman.

    This report describes a case of well differentiated fetal adenocarcinoma of the lung in a 29 year old female smoker. The histological pattern and immunohistochemical profile were consistent with well differentiated fetal adenocarcinoma and the patient made an uneventful postoperative recovery with no recurrence after 18 months. This neoplasm is a rare lung tumour that is composed of glycogen rich neoplastic glands and tubules that resembles fetal lung at 10 to 15 weeks of gestation. It is important to identify this rare variant of adenocarcinoma because it is a low grade malignancy with low associated mortality.
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10/53. Uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex-cord tumor: report of a case mimicking cervical adenocarcinoma.

    Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex-cord tumors (UTROSCTs) are unusual neoplasms with histologic features that resemble those within ovarian Sertoli and granulosa cell tumors. We report the case of a 24-year-old woman with a UTROSCT presenting as a cervical mass, which on initial evaluation was thought to represent cervical adenocarcinoma. The patient's cervical biopsy specimen contained epithelioid cells arranged in tubules and anastomosing cords, without significant cellular atypia or mitotic activity. Because this morphology elicited a broad differential diagnosis, immunohistochemical studies were performed. The tumor was found to be diffusely positive for cytokeratin cocktail, calretinin, and desmin, focally positive for CK7 and SMA, and negative for EMA, CEA, inhibin, CD10, CK20, chromogranin, and synaptophysin. Ultrastructural examination revealed occasional gland-like lumens with cells joined by desmosomes and a continuous basal lamina. UTROSCTs have features that may cause them to be confused with more common tumors, especially in limited biopsy samples, and should be included in the differential diagnosis when a gland-forming neoplasm with an unusual appearance is identified in a cervical or endometrial biopsy specimen.
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