Cases reported "Adenoma, Bile Duct"

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1/10. Clonorchis-associated cholangiocarcinoma: a report of two cases with unusual manifestations.

    Two cases of Clonorchis-associated cholangiocarcinoma are described along with their cholangiographic features to illustrate the spectrum of pathology ascribed to the injurious effects of the flukes on the bile duct epithelium. This includes adenomatous hyperplasia, extensive fibrosis, and carcinoma. The first case was also complicated by hepatic abscesses, left hepatic lobar atrophy, gastrobiliary and biliarocutaneous fistulae. The second case features an unusually dilated pancreatic duct containing pancreaticoliths that was found later to consist of hyperplastic bile duct epithelium, presumably carried by worm migration in the biliary tree. liver sections from both patients showed typical features of hepatic clonorchiasis with the cancer. A knowledge of the wide spectrum of clinical presentation of clonorchiasis, particularly cholangiocarcinoma, might aid Western physicians in averting this serious sequela through prompt eradication of the helminthic infection and early recognition and treatment of its complications.
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2/10. Bile duct carcinoma mimicking chronic liver disease.

    In a case of cholangiocarcinoma involving the bifurcation of the common duct, the association with striking intermittence of jaundice and with signs of chronic liver disease presented a diagnostic enigma. Disappearance of jaundice does not rule out the diagnosis of bifurcation tumors and may be misleading. Adequate demonstration of the biliary tree, best achieved with percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, is essential for early diagnosis of this entity.
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3/10. Increased secondary bile acids in a choledochal cyst. Possible role in biliary metaplasia and carcinoma.

    Choledochal cysts are uncommon congenital or acquired lesions of the biliary tree. The incidence of biliary tract carcinoma in patients with choledochal cysts is 5-35 times greater than that of the general population. Factors responsible for the increased risk of carcinoma are unknown. The case of a young woman who underwent excision of a choledochal cyst 16 years after initial diagnosis and treatment by choledochocystduodenostomy is reported. metaplasia of the epithelial lining of the cyst was found in the resected specimen. The relative composition of bile acids in cyst contents was as follows: lithocholate, 2%; deoxycholate, 88%; chenodeoxycholate, 5%; and cholate, 5%. Virtually all bile acids were recovered in unconjugated form. In contrast, the bile acid composition of hepatic bile was as follows: lithocholate, 0%; deoxycholate, 34%; chenodeoxycholate, 43%; and cholate, 23%. Bile acids were fully conjugated. These data suggest that stasis of bile within choledochal cysts contributes to bacterial overgrowth and generation of unconjugated secondary bile acids.
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4/10. Spontaneous cutaneous biliary fistula: a rare complication of cholangiocarcinoma.

    A rare case of intrahepatic-cutaneous biliary fistula resulted from obstruction of the biliary tree by cholangiocarcinoma in the hilar area. The diagnosis was made clinically by the presence of a constant pus discharge through the fistula opening and confirmed by sonogram, computed tomogram (CT), and surgery. To our knowledge, there have been no previous reports of such a fistula as the presenting symptom of cholangiocarcinoma.
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5/10. cholangitis, hemobilia, and cholangiocarcinoma. Management of a fistula between an obstructed right hepatic duct and the portal vein.

    cholangitis is the most common cause of sepsis in patients with obstructing carcinomas of the biliary tree. Catheter and stent placement may relieve or exacerbate the septic course. Transhepatic stent placement produced a cholangioportal fistula and hemobilia in a patient with cholangiocarcinoma. The described technique of retrograde operative decompression and clot evacuation may be used in patients in whom portal dissection is hazardous or in whom preservation of an existing cholangiojejunostomy in the portal region is desired.
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6/10. The development and extension of hepatohilar bile duct carcinoma. A three-dimensional tumor mapping in the intrahepatic biliary tree visualized with the aid of a graphics computer system.

    Computer-assisted three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the biliary tree including extrahepatic and intrahepatic parts was performed from surgical or autopsy materials from 12 patients with hepatohilar bile duct carcinoma in an effort to visualize three-dimensionally the distribution of carcinoma and dysplasia. In each case, material including a hepatic lobe was reduced to serial slices 1 mm thick using a ham slicer, then the tumors, ducts with carcinoma in situ, and those with dysplasia were submitted to reconstruction. In a 3D map of biliary tree reproduced on a display, a dysplastic zone was shown in most cases surrounding a focus of carcinoma, justifying the assumption of a dysplasia-carcinoma sequence. The carcinoma itself proved to form multiple foci along bile ducts in as many as 42% of the patients, in some of whom the foci were independent without any intervening dysplasia. These results suggest that as extensive a surgical measure as possible should be taken in designing a strategy against this tumor.
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7/10. Difficulty in diagnosing complications of Caroli's disease.

    Congenital cystic dilatation of the biliary tree (Caroli's disease) is a rare condition that usually presents with ascending cholangitis. This report demonstrates the difficulty of recognizing other complications of Caroli's disease antemortem. A 35-year-old man developed a subphrenic abscess and malignant transformation of the biliary tree; both were clinically undetected. Episodes of pain, pyrexia, or weight loss should be assessed carefully and the complications of Caroli's disease considered before attributing such symptoms to recurrent cholangitis.
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8/10. Intrahepatic abscess as a complication of long-term percutaneous internal biliary drainage.

    One hundred five patients with obstructive jaundice have undergone percutaneous transhepatic internal biliary drainage at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. Many of these patients subsequently underwent corrective or palliative surgery, whereas other died of malignant disease after relatively short periods of catheter decompression, Seven of these patients with percutaneous internal biliary drainage, however, have been followed for over 8 months. Three of these seven patients developed intrahepatic abscesses at a mean of 16 months after catheter placement. Two of the three patients died of sepsis. In two of the patients the abscesses communicated with the biliary tree, in the third it did not. Intrahepatic abscess formation may be a common complication of long-term percutaneous transhepatic internal biliary drainage, and it should be suspected in any patient with fever or signs of sepsis who has been followed with catheter drainage for over 6 months.
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9/10. Hepatobiliary cystadenoma. A study of five cases with reference to histogenesis.

    Hepatobiliary cystadenoma is a rare hepatic lesion characterized by a multiloculated cyst lined by cuboidal or columnar epithelial cells. Four cases of hepatobiliary cystadenoma with mesenchymal stroma (HCMS) and one case of hepatobiliary cystadenoma with intracystic epithelial component were studied by light microscopy, immunohistochemical methods, and electron microscopy. Similar studies were conducted on six fetal gallbladder tissues, representing the biliary tree, and two adult ovarian tissues. By light microscopy, the columnar epithelium of the five cases of hepatobiliary cystadenoma was similar to the epithelium of the developing gallbladder. The spindle cell stroma of the HCMS and the subepithelial spindle cells of the developing gallbladders showed similar reactivity to smooth-muscle actin. vimentin reactivity was strongly positive in the stroma of the HCMS, and in the fetal gallbladders it was only noted in the subepithelial spindle cells of the 15-week gestation fetal gallbladder tissues. By electron microscopy, the epithelium lining the hepatic lesions showed characteristic gastrointestinal features and was identical to the epithelia lining the embryonic gallbladders. Furthermore, the mesenchymal stroma of the HCMS recapitulated the features found in subepithelial tissues in developing gallbladders. Although the ovarian stroma resembled the stroma of the HCMS by light microscopy, the immunohistochemical reactions and the electron microscopic studies showed dissimilarities. This study supports the hypothesis that the hepatobiliary cystadenomas arise from ectopic embryonic tissues destined to form the adult gallbladder.
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10/10. Relief of malignant obstructive jaundice by percutaneous insertion of a permanent prosthesis in the biliary tree.

    Twelve patients with malignant obstruction of the biliary tree were treated by dilating the lesion percutaneously and inserting an internal large-bore teflon prosthesis in place bridging the the stricture. All 12 patients had unresectable neoplasms. The procedure was devised because existing modes of palliation using surgical techniques are associated with significant mortality or mobidity. There are also many problems with nonsurgical catheter drainage. decompression was achieved in all 12 patients as shown radiographically by passage of contrast into the duodenum. Disappearance of pruitus was achieved in seven of seven patients, and in 10 of 12 disappearance of jaundice (bilirubin, before prosthesis, 18.4 /- 4.5 mg/dl [mean /- 1 SD], bilirubin 1 month after prosthesis, 1.8 /- 0.6 mg/dl [mean /- 1 SD], P less than 0.001) with improvement of general clinical status was achieved. Percutaneous placement of a permanent biliary tract prosthesis is safe and effective for the palliative decompression of malignant biliary tract obstruction.
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