Cases reported "Adenoma"

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1/404. Pituitary macroadenoma manifesting as an isolated fourth nerve palsy.

    PURPOSE: To describe an unusual ophthalmic manifestation of a pituitary adenoma. methods: Case report. RESULTS: A 32-year-old man had left supraorbital and frontal headaches and new-onset vertical diplopia. Examination showed a left fourth nerve palsy and increased vertical fusional amplitudes. magnetic resonance imaging disclosed a sellar mass consistent with a pituitary macroadenoma. CONCLUSION: A pituitary adenoma may rarely manifest with an isolated fourth nerve palsy.
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ranking = 1
keywords = sella
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2/404. Interesting radiologic findings in suprasellar mass lesions. Report of three cases.

    The authors report three quite rare lesions of the sellar/parasellar region. They are namely; pituitary abscess, cystic macroadenoma and osteochondroma. In none of the cases, the preoperative diagnostic priority was not same as the final histopathologic diagnosis. The radiologic findings of these pathologies are discussed with emphasis on differential diagnosis.
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ranking = 6
keywords = sella
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3/404. Intrasellar malignant lymphoma developing within pituitary adenoma.

    A mixed lymphoblastic T cell lymphoma and gonadotroph cell pituitary adenoma occurred 25 years after first resection of the adenoma. Within 1 year the lymphoma overgrew the adenoma, but was still restricted to the sellar region. Histologically, lymphoma and adenoma components were tightly admixed. Possible pathogenetic pathways for intra-adenomatous lymphoma development include monoclonal expansion of T cell infiltrates, expression of adhesion molecules specific for adenoma endothelium, and production of mitogenic pituitary hormones.
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ranking = 5
keywords = sella
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4/404. Post-traumatic pituitary apoplexy--two case reports.

    A 60-year-old female and a 66-year-old male presented with post-traumatic pituitary apoplexy associated with clinically asymptomatic pituitary macroadenoma manifesting as severe visual disturbance that had not developed immediately after the head injury. skull radiography showed a unilateral linear occipital fracture. magnetic resonance imaging revealed pituitary tumor with dumbbell-shaped suprasellar extension and fresh intratumoral hemorrhage. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed in the first patient, and the visual disturbance subsided. decompressive craniectomy was performed in the second patient to treat brain contusion and part of the tumor was removed to decompress the optic nerves. The mechanism of post-traumatic pituitary apoplexy may occur as follows. The intrasellar part of the tumor is fixed by the bony structure forming the sella, and the suprasellar part is free to move, so a rotational force acting on the occipital region on one side will create a shearing strain between the intra- and suprasellar part of the tumor, resulting in pituitary apoplexy. Recovery of visual function, no matter how severely impaired, can be expected if an emergency operation is performed to decompress the optic nerves. Transsphenoidal surgery is the most advantageous procedure, as even partial removal of the tumor may be adequate to decompress the optic nerves in the acute stage. Staged transsphenoidal surgery is indicated to achieve total removal later.
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ranking = 5
keywords = sella
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5/404. Aggressive giant pituitary adenoma presenting as a nasopharyngeal mass: magnetic resonance imaging and pathologic findings.

    We report a giant pituitary adenoma with aggressive histologic features that prominently invaded the nasopharynx. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a large heterogeneous nodular mass that was hypointense to isointense on T1-weighted images and mixed hypointense, isointense, and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. The mass measured 7.5 x 5 x 7 cm, extending from the nasopharynx posteriorly through the clivus, and superiorly through the paranasal sinuses, and sellar-suprasellar region. After contrast administration, heterogeneous nodular enhancement was noted. A nasopharyngeal neoplasm extending into the sella was suspected because voice change and nasal speech long preceded the patient's visual symptoms. A biopsy disclosed an aggressive, infiltrating, hemorrhagic tumor, which was diagnosed as a non-secreting pituitary macroadenoma. This report indicates that pituitary adenomas may grow invasively to tremendously large sizes resulting in their initial presentation as nasopharyngeal masses.
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ranking = 3
keywords = sella
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6/404. Unusual MRI finding of multiple adenomas in the pituitary gland: a case report and review of the literature.

    The simultaneous occurrence of multiple adenomas in the pituitary gland is a rare event. We report the coexistence of three non functioning pituitary microadenomas in a 37-year-old woman, referred to us for oligomenorrhea and headache. Biochemical evaluation revealed prolactin (131 U/liters), follicle-stimulating hormone (4.1 U/liters), luteinizing hormone (3.9 U/liters), 17beta-estradiol (74 pg/mL), free (2.0 pg/mL) and total testosterone (0.5 ng/mL), dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (3.5 microg/mL), 17OH-progesterone (0.8 ng/mL), cortisol (13.1 microg/dL), free triiodothyronine (4.8 pmol/L), free thyroxine (18.5 pmol/liters), thyrotropin (1.6 mU/L), and growth hormone (0.2 ng/mL) levels in the normal range, as for as the response to dynamic endocrine tests. MRI showed an enlarged sella turcica, occupied by three distinct hypointense areas that measured less than 5 mm in diameter in the left, medium and right side of the pituitary, respectively. This finding was confirmed 6 months later by a second MRI that revealed also a light increase in microadenomas dimensions. The patient, therefore, underwent neurosurgery by transfenoidal approach. Histologic examination showed no morphologic differences between the specimens obtained from the different microadenomas. immunohistochemistry evaluation revealed a positive staining for the common alpha-subunit of glycoproteic hormones and negative for the other pituitary hormones tested, while electron microscopy showed cells with a poor secretory apparatus and a variable grade of cell differentiation. In conclusion, we report the fifth case described with multiple pituitary adenomas diagnosed in vivo and the first with three coexisting tumors revealed by MRI before neurosurgery. The occurrence of multiple pituitary tumors emphasizes the role of pituitary and extrahypophiseal factors in the clonal expansion of genetically altered cells.
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ranking = 12.710375845816
keywords = sella turcica, turcica, sella
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7/404. Intrasellar paraganglioma presenting as nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma.

    Paragangliomas arising in the sellar region are rare. We report a case of intrasellar paraganglioma of a 54-year-old man who presented with gradually decreasing visual acuity. physical examination revealed bitemporal hemianopsia with no apparent signs of endocrinologic dysfunction. magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large sellar mass believed to be a nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma. The tumor was removed transsphenoidally and submitted for histologic examination. The morphologic features, based on histologic, immunocytochemical, and electron microscopic analyses, were consistent with the diagnosis of paraganglioma. The diagnostic morphologic features and the immunocytochemical profile of the tumor are reported.
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ranking = 7
keywords = sella
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8/404. Dorsum sellae meningioma mimicking pituitary macroadenoma: case report.

    BACKGROUND: A dorsum sellae meningioma is a rare occurrence. It is difficult to evaluate dorsum sellae meningiomas preoperatively from the viewpoint of neuroimaging. We report a rare case of dorsum sellae meningioma mimicking pituitary macroadenoma in a 73-year-old woman. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient presented with bitemporal hemianopsia and panhypopituitarism. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a bright, homogeneously enhancing intra- and suprasellar mass and a hypointense region in this mass, which was interpreted as a dorsum sellae. Transsphenoidal extirpation was used because of a suspicion of nonsecreting pituitary macroadenoma. Histopathologically, the tumor was diagnosed as a meningioma. Superselective external carotid angiography before the second surgery revealed that the mass was supplied by the left accessory middle meningeal artery and appeared to originate from dorsum sellae. After preoperative embolization, the patient developed hyponatremia. The tumor was subtotally removed via a transcranial route, and the attachment to the dorsum sellae was coagulated extensively. She did well after a second surgical procedure. CONCLUSION: These radiologic findings may be useful in differentiating dorsum sellae meningioma from pituitary macroadenoma.
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ranking = 12
keywords = sella
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9/404. Reduction of plasma gonadotropin levels and pituitary tumor size by treatment with bromocriptine in a patient with gonadotropinoma.

    A pituitary tumor with suprasellar extension was found by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a male with diabetes mellitus. Endocrine examination revealed high plasma follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and alpha-subunit levels, which increased with administration of thyrotropin (TSH)-releasing hormone (TRH). plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone levels were low. Pituitary gonadotropin producing tumor was diagnosed. Because the patient refused surgery, bromocriptine was administered and plasma FSH and alpha-subunit rapidly decreased; on MRI the tumor size was gradually reduced. When pituitary operation is not feasible, bromocriptine is one choice of treatment.
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ranking = 1
keywords = sella
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10/404. Shrinkage of a PRL-secreting pituitary macroadenoma resistant to cabergoline.

    Cabergoline decreases both serum PRL levels and size of prolactinomas, including some tumors resistant to other dopamine-agonists. It is common observation that the shrinkage of the adenoma is preceded by suppression of PRL levels. A minority of patients, who do not show a significant decrease of PRL after a short trial with dopamine-agonists, undergoes neurosurgery or radiotherapy. We report on the case of a 14-year-old girl with a huge prolactinoma who showed, during cabergoline treatment (0.5 mg twice a week), a significant shrinkage of the pituitary mass but no decrease of the very high PRL values. She was referred to us after partial removal of the suprasellar extension of the pituitary tumor. The post-surgical evaluation showed very high PRL levels (9352 microg/l; 20941 microg/l before surgery), which did not decrease during the 2-year treatment with cabergoline (nadir value: 8735 microg/l). However, one month after the beginning of therapy, MRI showed a significant shrinkage of the tumor (tumor volume 5.7 ml, compared with 45.1 ml prior to surgery and 24.4 ml after surgery). Subsequently MRIs demonstrated a progressive reduction of the size with a complete disappearance of the suprasellar and parasellar tissue (tumor volume 1.8, 0.9 and 0.2 ml, at 3, 6 and 12 months, respectively). The MRI performed at the 24th month showed a secondary empty sella, with residual tumor tissue in the right sphenoidal sinus. Increasing cabergoline, up to 3 mg a week, failed to induce any decrease of PRL levels. In conclusion, in such macroprolactinomas the shrinkage of tumor is not strictly correlated with (or it is partially dissociated from) the inhibition of PRL hypersecretion. The choice of other therapeutic options in cabergoline-resistant macroprolactinomas needs careful neuroradiological evaluation after a short trial of pharmacological treatment.
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ranking = 4
keywords = sella
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