Cases reported "Adenoma"

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1/16. Pharyngeal pituitary: development, malformation, and tumorigenesis.

    The development of the pharyngeal pituitary (PhP) in the fetal period was morphologically and, for the first time, immunohistochemically examined. PhP, found in every individual, begins its hormone production at the 17-18th week of gestation, that is, 4-8 weeks later than that of sellar pituitary (SP). Only 1 of 25 examined fetuses without any stigmata of developmental anomalies showed a residual pituitary fragment in the craniopharyngeal canal (craniopharyngeal pituitary, CPhP). An adult case of a rare clivus pituitary adenoma that we examined is demonstrated in discussing its relationship to PhP. Extracranial ectopic pituitary adenomas in the literature describe an exclusively sphenoid sinus/nasopharyngeal/clivus location of the tumor. Their location corresponded exactly with that of PhP, so that the origin of the tumors can be reasonably speculated as PhP, although another origin, e.g., CPhP, can not be excluded. A variety of malformations of PhP, although very rare, have been described for the fist time during the systemic examination of 16 fetuses with different cranioneural malformations, such as agenesis, unseparated PhP from SP (pharyngosellar pituitary), fragmentation, and residual pituitary tissue in the open craniopharyngeal canal. However, developmental anomaly of PhP was not specifically associated with cranioneural malformations except in cases of chromosomal aberrations. The hormone production in PhP in malformation cases tended to be retarded. Absence of SP was recorded in 50% of anencephalics in the literature; however, PhP was identified in all anencephalics in our series, independent of the existence of SP. This supports the opinion that agenesis of SP in anencephalics seems to be false information.
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ranking = 1
keywords = tumorigenesis
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2/16. danazol and multiple hepatic adenomas: peculiar clinical findings in an acromegalic patient.

    Hepatic adenomas are rare tumors; they have been associated with the use of anabolic steroids. acromegaly increases the overall risk of neoplasms. We report the case of a female acromegalic patient in whom multiple hepatic adenomas appeared soon after danazol treatment for uterine fibromatosis. Treatment of acromegaly with octreotide, followed by successful selective pituitary adenomectomy, stabilized the number and the size of the liver tumors. We suggest that oversecretions of GH and IGF-I were strong promoting factors for liver tumorigenesis in this patient.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = tumorigenesis
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3/16. microsatellite instability in sporadic parathyroid adenoma.

    Parathyroid adenomas are usually benign uniglandular tumors, and inactivation of several tumor suppressor genes, notably the MEN 1 gene, or activation of oncogenes have been implicated in the tumorigenesis. genomic instability, indicative of the involvement of dna mismatch repair genes, has not been previously described in parathyroid adenomas. A single large parathyroid adenoma was resected from an 8.5-yr-old Brazilian patient with no personal or family history of other endocrinopathies. Analysis of paired tumor-nontumor DNA using 23 microsatellite markers, located on chromosomes 1, 10, and 11 was carried out. microsatellite instability was detected in nine markers (D1S191, D1S212, D1S413, D1S2848, RET, D11S901, D11S903, INSR, and INT2), whereas no allelic loss was detected with any of the analyzed markers. Immunohistochemical analysis of retinoblastoma protein expression revealed low levels of expression, but no histopathological signs of malignancy. We conclude that in this single, apparently sporadic parathyroid adenoma, dna mismatch repair genes might be involved in parathyroid tumorigenesis.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = tumorigenesis
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4/16. Pituitary macroadenoma in a 5-year-old: an early expression of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1.

    multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) is associated with parathyroid, enteropancreatic, pituitary, and other tumors. The MEN1 gene, a tumor suppressor, is located on chromosome 11. Affected individuals inherit a mutated MEN1 allele, and tumorigenesis in specific tissues follows inactivation of the remaining MEN1 allele. MEN 1-associated endocrine tumors usually become clinically evident in late adolescence or young adulthood, as high levels of PTH, gastrin, or PRL. Because each of these tumors can usually be controlled with medications and/or surgery, MEN 1 has been regarded mainly as a treatable endocrinopathy of adults. Unlike in MEN 2, early testing of children in MEN 1 families is not recommended. We report a 2.3-cm pituitary macroadenoma in a 5-yr-old boy with familial MEN 1. He presented with growth acceleration, acromegaloid features, and hyperprolactinemia. We tested systematically to see whether his pituitary tumor had causes similar to or different from a typical MEN 1 tumor. Germ line DNA of the propositus and his affected relatives revealed a heterozygous point mutation in the MEN1 gene, which leads to a His139Asp (H139D) amino acid substitution. The patient had no other detectable germ-line mutations on either MEN1 allele. DNA sequencing and fluorescent in situ hybridization with a MEN1 genomic DNA sequence probe each demonstrated one copy of the MEN1 gene to be deleted in the pituitary tumor and not in normal DNA, proving MEN1 "second hit" as a tumor cause. Gsalpha mutation, common in nonhereditary GH-producing tumors, was not detected in this tumor. We conclude that this pituitary macroadenoma showed molecular genetic features of a typical MEN 1-associated tumor. This patient represents the earliest presentation of any morbid endocrine tumor in MEN 1. A better understanding of early onset MEN 1 disease is needed to formulate recommendations for early MEN 1 genetic testing.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = tumorigenesis
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5/16. Cortisol producing adrenal adenoma--a new manifestation of Gardner's syndrome.

    INTRODUCTION: Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant disorder which typically presents with colorectal cancer in early adult life secondary to extensive adenomatous polyps of the colon. Gardner's syndrome is a variant of FAP in which desmoid tumors, osteomas and pigmented retinal lesions occur together with intestinal manifestations. The APC gene (adenomatous polyposis coli) at 5q21 is a tumor suppressor gene which is mutant in FAP. PATIENT: A 36 year old woman presented with a history of polyposis ventriculi, ovarian desmoid cysts, and disseminated desmoid tumors. Her familial history was unremarkable. On admission she complained weight gain, secondary amenorrhea, and episodes of hypertension followed by paroxysmal headache. RESULTS: Elevated urinary free cortisol (878 microg/24h), suppressed basal ACTH (< 5 pg/ml) and insuppressible serum cortisol after low dose dexamethasone (189 ng/ml) revealed adrenal Cushing's syndrome. Abdominal NMR showed an adrenal mass two centimeter in diameter with inhomogeneous contrast enhancement. Unilateral adrenalectomy was performed and an adrenal adenoma was diagnosed by histological criteria. For mutational detection DNA from peripheral blood leucocytes was extracted. A protein truncation test was performed, which revealed a termination mutation between codon 1099 and 1623 of the APC gene. Direct sequencing showed a point mutation in exon 15 of the APC gene at position 1542 (CAG --> TAG). This region is known to be altered in patients with extraintestinal manifestation of FAP. CONCLUSION: In patients with Gardner's syndrome adrenal tumors leading to hormonal excess should be considered. Whether mutations in the APC gene have implications in sporadic adrenal tumorigenesis needs to be proven.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = tumorigenesis
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6/16. hyperthyroidism in a patient with TSH-producing pituitary adenoma coexisting with thyroid papillary adenocarcinoma.

    A 27-year-old woman who presented with a left thyroid nodule was found to have hyperthyroidism caused by a syndrome of inappropriate secretion of TSH. The levels of free T3, free T4 and TSH were 9.50 pg/mL, 4.05 ng/dL and 2.16 microU/mL, respectively. magnetic resonance imaging of the head revealed a pituitary macroadenoma. The TSH response to TRH stimulation was normal and responses of other anterior pituitary hormones to stimulation tests were also normally preserved. Administration of octreotide with iodine successfully reversed hyperthyroidism prior to total resection of pituitary adenoma, which was followed by hemithyroidectomy of the left thyroid five months later. Histologically, the resected pituitary adenoma was a TSH-producing adenoma (TSH-oma) and the thyroid nodule was a papillary adenocarcinoma. serum TSH diminished to undetectable levels immediately following pituitary adenomectomy but gradually normalized over nine months. Coexistence of a TSH-oma with thyroid cancer is very rare and only two similar cases have previously been documented. This combination raises the possibility that TSH may be involved in tumorigenesis in the thyroid gland.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = tumorigenesis
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7/16. Overexpression of CXC chemokines by an adrenocortical carcinoma: a novel clinical syndrome.

    A patient with adrenocortical carcinoma presented with fever, leukocytosis, and increased acute phase reactants. The tumor was infiltrated with neutrophils. Immunohistochemical staining of the tumor showed positive signal for epithelial neutrophil-activating protein-78, an angiogenic and chemotactic CXC chemokine. Conditioned medium from tumor-derived cells (RL-251) showed high concentration of IL-8, epithelial neutrophil-activating protein-78, Gro alpha, and Gro gamma, angiogenic CXC chemokines with a potential role in tumorigenesis. An adrenal cancer/severe combined immunodeficiency mouse chimera was developed. mice grew tumors rapidly, and circulating levels of IL-8 and epithelial neutrophil-activating protein-78 were detected. In contrast, animals transplanted with NCI-H295 cells, a nonchemokine-secreting cell line, grew tumors more slowly and did not have detectable chemokine levels. Similar to the patient, mice with RL-251 tumors developed marked leukocytosis and neutrophilia, and their tumors were infiltrated with neutrophils. mice were passively immunized with epithelial neutrophil-activating protein-78 antisera. A marked decrease in tumor growth was observed. Potential for chemokine production by other adrenocortical tumors was investigated by RT-PCR in archival material. Six of seven adrenal carcinomas and one of three adenomas had cDNA for IL-8; six of seven carcinomas and the three adenomas had cDNA for epithelial neutrophil-activating protein-78. We concluded that the clinical presentation of this case resulted from increased tumor production of chemotactic chemokines. Through their angiogenic and chemotactic properties these chemokines may play an important role in adrenal tumorigenesis.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = tumorigenesis
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8/16. Thyrotoxic adenoma followed by atypical hyperthyroidism due to struma ovarii: clinical and genetic studies.

    OBJECTIVE: Atypical forms of hyperthyroidism represent a diagnostic challenge for clinicians. struma ovarii is an ovarian teratoma and constitutes a rare cause of ectopic thyroidal hormonal production. We describe a case of struma ovarii that combined two different sources of hyperthyroidism in the same patient and report genetic studies in order to contribute a better understanding of the autonomy and tumorigenesis of the struma ovarii. CASE REPORT: A 73-year-old nulliparous woman presented a thyroid toxic adenoma that was successfully treated with 10 mCi radioiodine. Unexpectedly, a new onset of hyperthyroidism prompted us to look for a second etiology. A whole-body scan with (123)I detected a pelvic hyperfixation suggesting struma ovarii, and a thyroid differentiated left ovarian teratoma 3 cm in size was surgically removed. We screened for mutations of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor and Gs-alpha protein genes, as these mutations are common in thyroid adenomas. We did not identify any mutations. Androgen receptor study demonstrated a monoclonal status. comparative genomic hybridization did not reveal any chromosomal abnormality. However, loss of heterozygosity analysis showed several structural abnormalities, compared with the majority of benign ovarian teratomas, which show a normal karyotype. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first well-documented report of thyrotoxic struma ovarii revealed after treatment of a single thyroid toxic adenoma. We have shown in this case that struma ovarii originates from a single germ cell, and, albeit benign, this tumor presents several chromosomal abnormalities. struma ovarii-induced hyperthyroidism is likely to be mediated by mechanisms different from those of the classical thyroid toxic adenoma.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = tumorigenesis
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9/16. Gliomatosis cerebri and pituitary adenoma: case report and literature review.

    The diagnosis of Gliomatosis cerebri (GC) is known to be difficult and is still a matter of debate. We describe an in vivo case of GC associated with a pituitary tumor. A 47-year-old woman presented with short-term memory loss. A MRI revealed the presence of a pituitary enhancing tumor and a diffuse lesion involving the brain. A left pterional craniotomy with partial temporal lobectomy and removal of the pituitary lesion were performed in order to obtain diagnosis. The histological analyses showed a pituitary non-functioning tumor and a GC consisting of neoplastic oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. Both lesions showed nuclear immunoreactivity for progesterone receptors (PGr) and estrogen receptors (EGr). This result could suggest there is a common receptor substrate in these tumors. In this case hormones could constitute a common step in tumorigenesis of both lesions.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = tumorigenesis
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10/16. Pleomorphic adenoma (benign mixed tumor) of the breast. An immunohistochemical, flow cytometric, and ultrastructural study and review of the literature.

    Pleomorphic adenoma (or benign mixed tumor) of the breast is a rare benign neoplasm that might be misinterpreted both clinically and pathologically as a malignant tumor. The authors present an additional case of this unusual lesion studied by immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and flow cytometry. A 77-year-old white woman presented with a 2-cm, nontender, mobile, calcified, right subareolar mass suggestive of a fibroadenoma. Microscopically, the tumor resembled a pleomorphic adenoma occurring in salivary glands. Positive immunostaining for S-100 protein, cytokeratin, and muscle-specific actin, as well as the ultrastructural presence of intermediate filaments with dense bodies and intercellular junctions, supported the predominant myoepithelial cell differentiation within the tumor, whereas the epithelial cell component stained only with cytokeratin and contained formed lumina with surface microvilli. The DNA pattern was diploid. The patient is alive and well 14 months after surgery. The authors' findings confirm that pleomorphic adenoma of the breast is a benign neoplasm in which myoepithelial cell proliferation plays a major role in tumorigenesis.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = tumorigenesis
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