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1/14. The hPMS2 exon 5 mutation and malignant glioma. Case report.

    patients with Turcot syndrome (TS) are predisposed to colon tumors and primary brain tumors, typically glioblastomas or medulloblastomas. The authors describe a patient with TS featuring a known germline mutation of exon 5 of the hPMS2 mismatch repair gene who developed two metachronous glioblastomas, both with distinct oligodendroglial features. Molecular genetic analysis revealed allelic loss of chromosome 19q in the patient's second tumor but no allelic loss of chromosome 1p. Prominent microsatellite instability was also found in this tumor, consistent with a germline mismatch repair defect. Because this patient had an unusual underlying condition and his tumor had a unique histological appearance for TS, it was hypothesized that this genetic defect may predispose to malignant gliomas with oligodendroglial features. The authors therefore evaluated whether sporadic glioblastomas and oligodendrogliomas undergo mutations of this region of the hPMS2 gene. However, single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of hPMS2 exon 5 failed to reveal mutations in 20 sporadic glioblastomas and 16 sporadic oligodendroglial gliomas. Thus, although it is possible that the germline hPMS2 exon 5 mutation may predispose to glioblastomas with an oligodendroglial component, the same genetic defect is not commonly involved in sporadic oligodendrogliomas or glioblastomas.
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ranking = 1
keywords = microsatellite instability, microsatellite, instability
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2/14. Germline hMSH2 and differential somatic mutations in patients with Turcot's syndrome.

    Turcot's syndrome is characterized clinically by the occurrence of primary brain tumor and colorectal tumor and has in previous reports been shown to be associated with germline mutations in the genes APC, hMLH1, and hPMS2. Here we describe three patients with Turcot's syndrome, each having colorectal adenocarcinoma and malignant glioma. All the colorectal and brain tumors from these patients showed replication errors in most of the microsatellite loci investigated. Search for underlying germline mutations in the nucleotide mismatch repair genes revealed three different hMSH2 mutations. All colorectal tumors showed a frameshift in the A(10) tract in the coding sequence of the transforming growth factor beta type II receptor (TGFBRII) gene, but no such change was detected in any of the brain tumors. frameshift mutation in the BAX gene was found in one colon carcinoma and mutations in insulin-like growth factor type II receptor (IGFIIR) gene in one glioma. Our data have broadened the possible mutation spectrum of patients with Turcot's syndrome. The difference in the mutation spectrum of TGFBRII, BAX, and IGFIIR between brain and colorectal tumors in these individuals suggests that the mutator phenotype may target different pathogenic pathways in the oncogenic process of the two organs.
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ranking = 0.039357665150222
keywords = microsatellite
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3/14. genetic testing and counseling for hereditary forms of colorectal cancer.

    The discovery of genes responsible for inherited forms of colorectal cancer have the potential to improve cancer risk assessment and counseling. Germline mutations (nonsense, frameshift) of APC are associated with familial adenomatous polyposis, an autosomal dominant syndrome, clinically characterized by young onset, hundreds of adenomatous polyps in the colon, and increased risk for extracolonic tumors. Mutations in APC are also associated with forms of attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis. Germline mutations in five mismatch repair related genes (hMSH2, hMLH1, hMSH6, hPMS1, and hPMS2) cause hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer and are associated with increased risk of somatic genetic alterations and high DNA microsatellite instability. Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer is characterized by young onset colorectal cancer, proximal colon location, and increased risk of extracolonic cancers. A missense mutation in APC (I1307K) is associated with some familial colorectal cancer in Ashkenazic jews. For persons at risk for hereditary forms of colorectal cancer, testing algorithms and gene test interpretations depend on identification of the pedigree germline gene mutation. Careful evaluation of the kindred for characteristic aggregation of tumor types among affected individuals and the availability of affected persons for testing are important issues in implementing genetic testing and follow-up management. case reports illustrate the importance of genetic counseling as a component of cancer genetic risk assessment. The genetic counseling process includes exploration of patient risk perception, sources of anxiety related to cancer risk, patient education (specific cancer-related issues, prevention/intervention options), discussion of possible gene test options, test limitations, and consequences of various gene test outcomes.
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ranking = 1
keywords = microsatellite instability, microsatellite, instability
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4/14. Challenge in the differentiation between attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer: case report with review of the literature.

    The clinical differentiation between hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) and attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis (AFAP) is very difficult. The 62-yr-old proband presented with duodenal adenocarcinoma. His history of subtotal colectomy for colon cancer, the rarity of duodenal adenocarcinoma in the general population, and his family history of colon cancer made us suspect that he might have FAP. We investigated this family by obtaining medical records and performing gene analysis. The proband had only 10 adenomatous colon polyps when he underwent subtotal colectomy for the cancer, so classic FAP was excluded. His family history included rectal cancer in his brother at 69 yr of age, colon cancer in his mother at 75 yr, and colon cancer in one maternal cousin at 42 yr. Three months after we started to study this family, the proband's 32-yr-old son presented with rectal cancer. His family fulfilled the Amsterdam criteria for HNPCC, but AFAP could not be excluded. Upon gene testing, the proband was negative for APC gene germline mutation, which made AFAP highly unlikely. Moreover, high microsatellite instability (MSI) was detected in his adenomas and cancer tissues. The fulfillment of Amsterdam criteria, the exclusion of FAP and AFAP, and the high MSI established the diagnosis of HNPCC in this family. We also summarize the differences between FAP, AFAP, and HNPCC; extend the graphic description of the MSI mechanism; and propose a diagnostic strategy for HNPCC.
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ranking = 1
keywords = microsatellite instability, microsatellite, instability
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5/14. Somatic mutations in familial adenomatous polyps. Nuclear translocation of beta-catenin requires more than biallelic APC inactivation.

    Germline mutations of the APC gene cause familial adenomatous polyposis coli (FAP). APC inactivation results in dysregulation of wnt/wingless signaling and contributes to chromosomal instability in vitro. To investigate somatic alterations that follow a known germline mutation and contribute to the transition from normal to neoplastic mucosa, we studied 10 adenomatous polyps from a 27-year-old patient with an APC germline mutation at codon 554. Chromosomal imbalances were analyzed by comparative genomic hybridization; APC and K-ras were screened for somatic mutations. Before DNA analysis, the polyps were bisected to compare the genetic alterations with the corresponding immunohistologic phenotype of beta-catenin, a proto-oncogene product degraded by the APC tumor suppressor. Gains at chromosome 20 were the most frequent chromosomal alterations (6 polyps). Losses were found predominantly at chromosome 4q (3 polyps). A K-ras mutation was seen in 1 polyp, while all polyps displayed somatic intragenic APC mutations. Comparative immunohistologic analysis revealed strong membranous staining for beta-catenin in all adenomatous polyps, but only 1 adenoma showed nuclear accumulation. Our results suggest chromosomal aberrations contribute early to the progression of adenomatous polyps after biallelic APC inactivation. APC inactivation itself is insufficient for immunohistochemically detectable nuclear translocation of beta-catenin.
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ranking = 0.0021105995797611
keywords = instability
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6/14. Double frameshift mutations in APC and MSH2 in the same individual.

    Heterozygous germline dna mismatch repair gene mutations are typically associated with HNPCC. Here we report the case of a proband whose father was known for familial adenomatous polyposis. The number of polyps (less than ten) was not typical of polyposis; therefore, the diagnosis of HNPCC was entertained. microsatellite instability analyses were performed on peripheral blood and biopsy of a right-sided dysplastic adenoma. The tumour tissue showed high-grade instability, and subsequently, immunohistochemistry showed that neither MSH2 nor MSH6 proteins were expressed in tumour cells. Prophylactic colectomy was performed, and an adenocarcinoma developing within the adenoma was diagnosed (pT1N0). Genomic DNA analysis revealed a novel mutation in MSH2 as a frameshift mutation in exon 7 (c.1,191_1,192dupG). Both parents of the proband were analyzed for MSH2 and APC mutations, and in the father, a truncating mutation in exon 15 of APC was identified as del3471-3473GAGA. This mutation was found to be present in the proband. His mother was found to bear the MSH2 exon 7 mutation. At follow-up, the proband was diagnosed with fundic, antral and duodenal adenomas (one fundic adenoma showed low-grade dysplasia). Several tubular rectal adenomas with low-grade dysplasia were excised. The patient later developed an intra-abdominal desmoid tumour.
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ranking = 0.0042211991595221
keywords = instability
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7/14. A homozygous mutation in MSH6 causes Turcot syndrome.

    Heterozygous mutations in one of the dna mismatch repair genes cause hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (MIM114500). Turcot syndrome (MIM276300) has been described as the association of central nervous system malignant tumors and familial colorectal cancer and has been reported to be both a dominant and recessive disorder. Homozygous and compound heterozygous mutations in APC, MLH1, MSH2, and PMS2 genes have been reported in five families. Here we describe a nonconsanguineous Pakistani family, including a son with lymphoma and colorectal cancer diagnosed at ages 5 and 8, respectively, and an 8-year-old daughter with glioblastoma multiforme. Both children had features of neurofibromatosis type 1 including atypical cafe au lait spots and axillary freckling without a family history consistent with neurofibromatosis type 1, familial adenomatous polyposis, or hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. Mutational analysis was done for MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography and sequencing of a blood sample from the daughter. A novel homozygous single base insertion mutation was identified (3634insT) resulting in a premature stop at codon 1,223 in exon 7 of the MSH6 gene. Both parents were found to be heterozygous for the 3634insT mutation. microsatellite instability testing showed instability in the glioblastoma sample. We report here the first identification of a homozygous mutation in MSH6 in a family with childhood-onset brain tumor, lymphoma, colorectal cancer, and neurofibromatosis type 1 phenotype. Our findings support a role for MSH6 in Turcot syndrome and are consistent with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance.
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ranking = 0.0042211991595221
keywords = instability
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8/14. Attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis and muir-torre syndrome linked to compound biallelic constitutional MYH gene mutations.

    Attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis and muir-torre syndrome linked to compound biallelic constitutional MYH gene mutations.Peculiar dermatologic manifestations are present in several heritable gastrointestinal disorders. muir-torre syndrome (MTS) is a genodermatosis whose peculiar feature is the presence of sebaceous gland tumors associated with visceral malignancies. We describe one patient in whom multiple sebaceous gland tumors were associated with early onset colon and thyroid cancers and attenuated polyposis coli. Her family history was positive for colonic adenomas. She had a daughter presenting with yellow papules in the forehead region developed in the late infancy. skin and visceral neoplasms were tested for microsatellite instability and immunohistochemical status of mismatch repair (MMR), APC and MYH proteins. The proband colon and skin tumors were microsatellite stable and showed normal expression of MMR proteins. Cytoplasmic expression of MYH protein was revealed in colonic cancer cells. Compound heterozygosity due to biallelic mutations in MYH, R168H and 379delC, was identified in the proband. The 11-year-old daughter was carrier of the monoallelic constitutional mutation 379delC in the MYH gene; in the sister, the R168H MYH gene mutation was detected. This report presents an interesting case of association between MYH-associated polyposis and sebaceous gland tumors. These findings suggest that patients with MTS phenotype that include colonic polyposis should be screened for MYH gene mutations.
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ranking = 1.0393576651502
keywords = microsatellite instability, microsatellite, instability
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9/14. Double frameshift mutations in APC and MSH2 in the same individual.

    Heterozygous germline dna mismatch repair gene mutations are typically associated with HNPCC. Here we report the case of a proband whose father was known for familial adenomatous polyposis. The number of polyps (less than ten) was not typical of polyposis; therefore, the diagnosis of HNPCC was entertained. microsatellite instability analyses were performed on peripheral blood and biopsy of a right-sided dysplastic adenoma. The tumor tissue showed high-grade instability, and a subsequent, immunohistochemistry showed that neither MSH2 nor MSH6 proteins were expressed in tumor cells. Prophylactic colectomy was performed, and an adenocarcinoma developing within the adenoma was diagnosed (pT1N0). Genomic DNA analysis revealed a novel mutation in MSH2 as a frameshift mutation in exon 7 (c.1191_1192dupG). Both parents of the proband were analysed for MSH2 and APC mutations, and in the father, a truncating mutation in exon 15 of APC was identified as del3471-3473GAGA. This mutation was found to be present in the proband. His mother was found to bear the MSH2 exon 7 mutation. At the follow-up, the proband was diagnosed with fundic, antral and duodenal adenomas (one fundic adenoma showed low-grade dysplasia). Several tubular rectal adenomas with low-grade dysplasia were excised. The patient later developed an intra-abdominal desmoid tumor.
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ranking = 0.0042211991595221
keywords = instability
(Clic here for more details about this article)

10/14. Familial adenomatous polyposis coli and clear cell sarcoma of the kidney.

    Familial adenomatous polyposis coli is an inherited multiple neoplasia syndrome that is associated with an increased risk for development of another primary tumor. We report a case of a 14-year-old boy who had a proctocolectomy for familial adenomatous polyposis coli. He had survived radical nephrectomy, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy for a congenital clear cell sarcoma of the right kidney. Perhaps the presence of the familial adenomatous polyposis gene induces chromosomal instability in affected persons.
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ranking = 0.0021105995797611
keywords = instability
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