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1/336. An aggressive desmoid tumor in a patient with familial adenomatous polyposis: immunohistochemical findings.

    A case of an aggressive desmoid tumor in a patient with familial adenomatous polyposis is described. The lesion rapidlyenlarged with compression of adjacent structures including the ureter and small bowel, and the patient died because of small bowel perforation and hydronephrosis 3 years after detection of small desmoid tumors at the time of a prophylactic coloproctectomy for a colon carcinoma. Immunohistochemically, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), p21WAF1/CIP1 and cathepsin d indices, but not the bcl-2 index, which were defined as the numbers of immunoreactive tumor cells per 1000 tumor cells, increased in line with tumor progression. The tumor did not show staining for collagen IV, but was characterized by intense staining for basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Accordingly, tumor aggression was related to increases in both cell proliferation and protease activity, as well as an enhanced expression of bFGF. In addition, the desmoid tumor showed deregulation between PCNA and p21WAF1/CIP1 because the normal inverse relation between these two was not apparent. ( info)

2/336. Pineoblastoma presenting in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP): random association, FAP variant or Turcot syndrome?

    brain tumours which arise in combination with adenomatous polyposis are usually astrocytic tumours or medulloblastomas. An adult women with a pineoblastoma associated with familial adenomatous polyposis is presented. In regard to the neuro-epithelial origin of this tumour we propose that it should be included in the second category of brain tumour polyposis syndrome. ( info)

3/336. Hereditary desmoid disease in a family with a germline Alu I repeat mutation of the APC gene.

    Two families with autosomal dominantly inherited desmoid tumors have recently been shown to have germline mutations at the 3' end of the APC gene. We subsequently identified an amish family with autosomal dominantly inherited desmoid tumors. Genetic analysis performed on one family member, a 47-year-old man with multiple desmoid tumors and no colon polyps, revealed a protein truncating mutation in the middle of the APC gene. The truncating mutation is the result of a 337-bp insertion of an Alu I sequence into codon 1526 of the APC gene. The presence of a poly(A) tail at the 3' end of the insertion suggests that the Alu I sequence was inserted by a retrotranspositional event. Germline insertions of Alu I sequences have occasionally been reported to cause other genetic diseases including type I neurofibromatosis, hereditary site-specific breast cancer (BRCA2), and hemophilia b. However, this is the first report of a germline mutation of the APC gene resulting from an Alu I insertion. ( info)

4/336. Coexisting carcinoid tumors in familial adenomatous polyposis-associated upper intestinal adenomas.

    Upper gastrointestinal polyps and extraintestinal tumors are well recognized in association with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Although carcinoid tumors have been reported in association with sporadic colonic neoplasms and ulcerative colitis, to date, carcinoids have not been reported in association with FAP. We report a patient with FAP who has recurrent carcinoid tumors located at the bases of duodenal adenomas. The genetic basis of carcinoid neoplasms is still uncertain. This report may represent the clinical effect of the APC gene mutation on the enterochromaffin cell line manifesting as recurrent carcinoid tumors in physical association with intestinal adenomas. Future genetic analysis and epidemiological studies may be of value in determining whether a true association exists. ( info)

5/336. Juvenile polyposis: case report and assessment of the neoplastic risk in 271 patients reported in the literature.

    A case of juvenile polyposis is reported and 271 cases are collected from the literature. The risk for neoplasia is analyzed and the endoscopic or surgical therapy is discussed. The authors conclude that juvenile polyposis should be considered as a challenge to the surgeon with regard to familial adenomatous syndromes, and strongly recommend a close follow-up of patients with juvenile polyposis. ( info)

6/336. Failure to diagnose hereditary colorectal cancer and its medicolegal implications: a hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer case.

    PURPOSE: We describe a patient who had precancerous colonic symptoms and a positive family history of multiple occurrences of early-onset colorectal cancer in her first-degree and second-degree relatives consistent with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer diagnosis had not been made before her diagnosis of carcinoma of the cecum with liver metastasis. She died at age 20, leading to litigation. Controversies about standards of care, their malpractice implications, and pertinent legal issues are discussed. methods: review of the medical and family history was made by the expert witness (HTL) with appropriate documentation of the chronology of symptoms, as derived from depositions. These documents revealed that the patient's mother had repeatedly discussed with the caregivers her concern about the family history of colon cancer and the need for appropriate surveillance. RESULTS: The patient's colonic symptoms progressed for a period of three years. Flexible sigmoidoscopy was performed by a nonphysician. The physician who ordered the procedure considered this appropriate because isolated polyps were reported in the patient's father and paternal uncle, which apparently led him to believe that the diagnosis was familial adenomatous polyposis. During litigation procedures, a pedigree was constructed and found to be consistent with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. The case was settled in favor of the plaintiff before trial. CONCLUSION: It is essential to understand the natural history of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, inclusive of the need for surveillance colonoscopy in patients at increased risk by virtue of their position in their family pedigree. ( info)

7/336. The hPMS2 exon 5 mutation and malignant glioma. Case report.

    patients with Turcot syndrome (TS) are predisposed to colon tumors and primary brain tumors, typically glioblastomas or medulloblastomas. The authors describe a patient with TS featuring a known germline mutation of exon 5 of the hPMS2 mismatch repair gene who developed two metachronous glioblastomas, both with distinct oligodendroglial features. Molecular genetic analysis revealed allelic loss of chromosome 19q in the patient's second tumor but no allelic loss of chromosome 1p. Prominent microsatellite instability was also found in this tumor, consistent with a germline mismatch repair defect. Because this patient had an unusual underlying condition and his tumor had a unique histological appearance for TS, it was hypothesized that this genetic defect may predispose to malignant gliomas with oligodendroglial features. The authors therefore evaluated whether sporadic glioblastomas and oligodendrogliomas undergo mutations of this region of the hPMS2 gene. However, single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of hPMS2 exon 5 failed to reveal mutations in 20 sporadic glioblastomas and 16 sporadic oligodendroglial gliomas. Thus, although it is possible that the germline hPMS2 exon 5 mutation may predispose to glioblastomas with an oligodendroglial component, the same genetic defect is not commonly involved in sporadic oligodendrogliomas or glioblastomas. ( info)

8/336. Cribriform-morular variant of papillary carcinoma: a distinctive variant representing the sporadic counterpart of familial adenomatous polyposis-associated thyroid carcinoma?

    We describe herein four cases of an unusual sporadic thyroid tumor that shares the morphologic features of a distinctive follicular cell neoplasm previously proposed as a feasible indicator of familial adenomatous polyposis. We also review five other similar cases reported in the literature. All of the nine patients were young women, aged 16 to 30 years. Grossly, the neoplasms measured 1.5 to 5.6 cm; they were solid and solitary, except one case, which showed two tumor nodules, one in each lobe. Histologically, the lesions were encapsulated, and they exhibited an intricate blending of cribriform, follicular, papillary, trabecular, and solid patterns of growth, with morular (squamoid) areas. Cribriform structures were prominent, being formed by anastomosing bars and arches of cells in the absence of intervening fibrovascular stroma. Follicular areas were usually devoid of colloid, and the papillae were lined by columnar cells. There were focal areas of trabecular arrangement reminiscent of hyalinizing trabecular adenoma. The tumor cells were cuboidal or tall, with frequent nuclear pseudostratification and abundant eosinophilic-to-oxyphilic cytoplasm. The nuclei were usually hyperchromatic, but nuclear grooves, pale or clear nuclei, and intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusions were variably present. Morules with peculiar nuclear clearing caused by biotin accumulation were scattered in the tumors. Vascular and/or capsular invasion were noted in all of the cases except one, and lymph node metastasis was found in two cases. Immunohistochemical stains showed reactivity for thyroglobulin, epithelial membrane antigen, cytokeratins (including 34betaE12), vimentin, estrogen and progesterone receptors, bcl-2, and Rb proteins. Follow-up in seven cases showed that all of the patients were alive with no evidence of disease at 1 to 13 years after diagnosis. Thus, the behavior of this variant seems to be similar to that of conventional papillary carcinoma Because of the distinctive histologic features, we propose naming this tumor the cribriform-morular variant of papillary carcinoma. ( info)

9/336. Germline hMSH2 and differential somatic mutations in patients with Turcot's syndrome.

    Turcot's syndrome is characterized clinically by the occurrence of primary brain tumor and colorectal tumor and has in previous reports been shown to be associated with germline mutations in the genes APC, hMLH1, and hPMS2. Here we describe three patients with Turcot's syndrome, each having colorectal adenocarcinoma and malignant glioma. All the colorectal and brain tumors from these patients showed replication errors in most of the microsatellite loci investigated. Search for underlying germline mutations in the nucleotide mismatch repair genes revealed three different hMSH2 mutations. All colorectal tumors showed a frameshift in the A(10) tract in the coding sequence of the transforming growth factor beta type II receptor (TGFBRII) gene, but no such change was detected in any of the brain tumors. frameshift mutation in the BAX gene was found in one colon carcinoma and mutations in insulin-like growth factor type II receptor (IGFIIR) gene in one glioma. Our data have broadened the possible mutation spectrum of patients with Turcot's syndrome. The difference in the mutation spectrum of TGFBRII, BAX, and IGFIIR between brain and colorectal tumors in these individuals suggests that the mutator phenotype may target different pathogenic pathways in the oncogenic process of the two organs. ( info)

10/336. Somatic mutation of the APC gene in thyroid carcinoma associated with familial adenomatous polyposis.

    We report the existence of both germline and somatic mutations of the APC gene in thyroid carcinomas from familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients. One papillary thyroid carcinoma from a 210-year-old woman, with germline mutation of the APC gene (TCA to TGA at codon 1110), showed a somatic mutation of AAAAC deletion between codons 1060 and 1063. Another somatic mutation of CAG to TAG at codon 886 was also found in one of multiple thyroid carcinomas from a 26-year-old woman with attenuated FAP and germline mutation at codon 175 (C deletion). This is the first evidence that total absence of the normal function of the APC gene is involved in development of thyroid carcinomas in FAP. ( info)
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