Cases reported "Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms"

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1/7. mutation analysis of Gsalpha, adrenocorticotropin receptor and p53 genes in Japanese patients with adrenocortical neoplasms: including a case of Gsalpha mutation.

    While the mechanisms of tumorigenesis for adrenocortical neoplasms remain unknown, several genes, such as Gsalpha, ACTH receptor (MC2-R), p53, and p16 tumor suppressor genes, are considered to be candidates for adrenocortical neoplasms. mutation analysis studies have documented these genes in adrenocortical neoplasms, but these studies focused on the mutation of only one of these genes. In the present study we examined the mutations of three of these genes (Gsalpha, MC2-R, and p53) in adrenocortical neoplasms in Japanese patients. We amplified these genes using polymerase chain reaction and directly sequenced them in 30 functioning adrenocortical neoplasms. As for Gsalpha, we identified a heterogeneous substitution of glutamine to histidine at codon 227 and a gain of an Nru I restriction endonuclease site. The mutation was restricted to adenomatous tissue, and did not occur in the adjacent normal adrenal tissue or leukocytes of the patient. We did not find any mutations in MC2-R and p53. In conclusion, although the contribution of these three genes to adrenocortical tumorigenesis remains to be determined, it is suggested that the mutation of Gsalpha might play a role in functional adrenocortical neoplasms.
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ranking = 1
keywords = tumorigenesis
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2/7. Overexpression of CXC chemokines by an adrenocortical carcinoma: a novel clinical syndrome.

    A patient with adrenocortical carcinoma presented with fever, leukocytosis, and increased acute phase reactants. The tumor was infiltrated with neutrophils. Immunohistochemical staining of the tumor showed positive signal for epithelial neutrophil-activating protein-78, an angiogenic and chemotactic CXC chemokine. Conditioned medium from tumor-derived cells (RL-251) showed high concentration of IL-8, epithelial neutrophil-activating protein-78, Gro alpha, and Gro gamma, angiogenic CXC chemokines with a potential role in tumorigenesis. An adrenal cancer/severe combined immunodeficiency mouse chimera was developed. mice grew tumors rapidly, and circulating levels of IL-8 and epithelial neutrophil-activating protein-78 were detected. In contrast, animals transplanted with NCI-H295 cells, a nonchemokine-secreting cell line, grew tumors more slowly and did not have detectable chemokine levels. Similar to the patient, mice with RL-251 tumors developed marked leukocytosis and neutrophilia, and their tumors were infiltrated with neutrophils. mice were passively immunized with epithelial neutrophil-activating protein-78 antisera. A marked decrease in tumor growth was observed. Potential for chemokine production by other adrenocortical tumors was investigated by RT-PCR in archival material. Six of seven adrenal carcinomas and one of three adenomas had cDNA for IL-8; six of seven carcinomas and the three adenomas had cDNA for epithelial neutrophil-activating protein-78. We concluded that the clinical presentation of this case resulted from increased tumor production of chemotactic chemokines. Through their angiogenic and chemotactic properties these chemokines may play an important role in adrenal tumorigenesis.
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ranking = 1
keywords = tumorigenesis
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3/7. A case report in favor of a multistep adrenocortical tumorigenesis.

    The mechanisms of adrenocortical tumorigenesis are still not fully understood. Data from clonal analysis, comparative genomic hybridization, and allelotyping suggest that it involves a multistep process during which several genetic defects are progressively acquired, leading to the malignant transformation. The events involved in the first steps of this process are not well known, and most of the abnormalities described in adrenocortical tumors to date are associated with the malignant phenotype. We report a case that suggests that adrenocortical tumorigenesis may be a multistep process. A 43-yr-old patient underwent surgery for an incidentally discovered adrenal mass. Pathological analysis showed that this tumor consisted of two parts: a central part with features of malignancy surrounded by another part with a strictly benign appearance. These data were confirmed by molecular analysis and comparative genomic hybridization that were consistent with either a malignant or benign presentation. The apparently malignant part of the tumor exhibited molecular abnormalities [17p13 loss of heterozygosity (LOH), 11p15 uniparental disomy and overexpression of the IGF-II gene] as well as chromosomal gains and losses (comparative genomic hybridization) that have been previously described in malignant tumors. No abnormalities were found in the surrounding benign tissues. Although this observation is not definitive proof that adrenocortical tumorigenesis occurs via a multistep process, it suggests that there is a progressive change from the benign to the malignant state in some adrenocortical tumors.
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ranking = 3.5
keywords = tumorigenesis
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4/7. Expression of endothelin-1 by adrenocortical carcinoma: a new target for anti-cancer therapy?

    adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare neoplasm with poor prognosis. endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been implicated in carcinogenesis, but has never been studied in this neoplasm. A 76-year-old woman with Cushing's syndrome due adrenocortical carcinoma was operated on and the tumour removed was studied by immunohistochemistry for ET-1. Patient history illustrates the poor prognosis of this cancer that became metastatic after one year. Immunohistochemical studies disclosed a strong expression of ET-1 by adrenocortical carcinoma cells. As shown in other cancers, ET-1 expression by adrenocortical carcinoma may suggest a pathogenic role of ET-1 in tumorigenesis that possibly could be countered by ET-1 receptor antagonists. These agents could open new therapeutic perspectives to treat a carcinoma known to have a poor prognosis.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = tumorigenesis
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5/7. Generation of homozygosity at the c-Ha-ras-1 locus on chromosome 11p in an adrenal adenoma from an adult with Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome.

    Generation of homozygosity for the human c-Ha-ras-1 locus on the short arm of chromosome #11 (11p) has been demonstrated for an adrenal adenoma from an adult with Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome (WBS). This is the first demonstration of loss of somatic heterozygosity for a locus on 11p in an adrenal neoplasm and is the first instance where a tumor of any type, from a patient with WBS, shows loss of heterozygosity in this region of the genome. Generation of homozygosity in an adenoma, rather than a carcinoma, demonstrates that this mechanism is an early event in tumorigenesis rather than a late event associated with tumor progression.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = tumorigenesis
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6/7. Bilateral adrenocortical carcinoma showing loss of heterozygosity at the p53 and RB gene loci.

    Presented is a rare case of nonfamilial, hormonally nonfunctional adrenocortical carcinoma with synchronous bilateral adrenal involvement. We investigated adrenal and metastatic tumors for loss of heterozygosity affecting four genetic loci containing the tumor suppressor genes p53, RB, DCC, and APC, using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Allelic losses at the p53 and RB loci were detected in all tumor samples, suggesting that the p53 and RB genes are involved in the tumorigenesis of adrenocortical carcinoma.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = tumorigenesis
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7/7. Cushing's syndrome due to a gastric inhibitory polypeptide-dependent adrenal adenoma: insights into hormonal control of adrenocortical tumorigenesis.

    We studied a patient with food-induced, ACTH-independent, Cushing's syndrome and a unilateral adrenocortical adenoma. In vivo cortisol secretion was stimulated by mixed, glucidic, lipidic, or proteic meals. plasma ACTH levels were undetectable, but iv injection of ACTH stimulated cortisol secretion. Unilateral adrenalectomy was followed by hypocortisolism with loss of steroidogenic responses to both food and ACTH. in vitro, cortisol secretion by isolated tumor cells was stimulated by the gut hormone gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and ACTH, but not by another gut hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Both peptides stimulated the production of cAMP but not of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. In quiescent cells, GIP and ACTH stimulated [3H]thymidine incorporation and p42-p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity. GIP receptor messenger ribonucleic acid (rna), assessed by RT-PCR, was highly expressed in the tumor, whereas it was undetectable in the adjacent hypotrophic adrenal tissue, in two adrenal tumors responsible for food-independent Cushing's syndrome, and in two hyperplastic adrenals associated with ACTH hypersecretion. in situ hybridization demonstrated that expression of GIP receptor rna was confined to the adrenocortical tumor cells. Low levels of ACTH receptor messenger rna were also detectable in the tumor. We conclude that abnormal expression of the GIP receptor allows adrenocortical cells to respond to food intake with an increase in cAMP that may participate in the stimulation of both cortisol secretion and proliferation of the tumor cells.
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ranking = 2
keywords = tumorigenesis
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