Cases reported "Adrenal Gland Diseases"

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21/140. An unusual case of Cushing's syndrome due to ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia.

    We report a case of Cushing's syndrome due to ACTH-independent macro-nodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH). The patient, a 51-year-old man, had been suffering from poorly controlled arterial hypertension for the previous 6 years and he complained of progressive weight gain, gynecomastia and impotence. physical examination revealed classic cushingoid features. Endocrine basal assessment showed increased urinary free cortisol (264-600 micrograms/24 hr). Urinary steroid profile showed an increase of total 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-OHCS: 23 mg/24 hr), with a threefold increase of tetrahydrocortisol (THF:9.66 mg/24 hr) and of tetrahydrocorticosterone (THB: 1.35 mg/24 hr). Tetrahydrodesossicortisol was only slightly elevated (THS:0.67 mg/24 hr) and tetrahydrodesossicorticosterone was at the inferior limit of the normal range (THDOC: 0.03 mg/24 hr). Total 17-ketosteroids were decreased (17-KS: 3 mg/24 hr). plasma cortisol level was elevated and without circadian rhythm (26-29 micrograms/dl in the morning, 26-28 micrograms/dl at 24:00 h). DHEAs and free testosterone levels were significantly reduced (106 ng/dl and 3.9 pg/ml respectively). ACTH was undetectable and unresponsive to CRH. Both dexamethasone and octreotide failed to suppress plasma cortisol levels. abdomen computed tomography scan demonstrated bilaterally enlarged multinodular adrenal glands. Cerebral magnetic resonance revealed no alteration of the pituitary gland. The patient underwent bilateral adrenalectomy. On macroscopic examination, adrenal glands were occupied by multiple yellow nodules and their compressive weight was 190 g, with left adrenal heavier than the right one (120 g and 70 g respectively). Histologically, nodular lesions were predominantly composed of large clear cells, with small foci of "hybrid" cells and adipose tissue metaplasia. Reticularis zone was atrophic. In the immediate post-operatory course pulmonary embolism occurred, despite prophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin. After having recovered from this complication, the patient showed progressive regression of cushingoid status. The findings of increased THF/THS and THB/THDOC ratios were in agreement with a relative hyperfunction of 11-beta-hydroxylase "in vivo", which might have contributed to the hypercortisolism, in addition to the marked increase of secernent adrenal mass.
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22/140. Hydatid disease in a very unusual location: the adrenal gland. A case report.

    Hydatid cysts are most often located in the liver and lungs (55-90%), while their location in the adrenal gland is very rare (0.5%). We observed a patient with a hydatid cyst in the adrenal gland, the diagnosis of which was incidental during ultrasonography and computed tomography. The experience acquired in sicily where hydatid disease is endemic makes serological tests unnecessary, also because they often require a lengthy waiting period and are expensive. The patient had undergone surgery for the treatment of hepatic hydatid cysts. The adrenal localization may be explained as a consequence of secondary dissemination via the blood stream. The cyst developed inside the gland and caused atrophy of the glandular tissue. The surgical treatment called for adrenalectomy as the adrenal gland was entirely occupied by the cyst.
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23/140. Case report: chronic expanding hematoma in the adrenal gland with pathologic correlations.

    We report a case of chronic expanding hematoma in the adrenal gland. Mixed signal intensity in a mosaic pattern was seen on T2-weighted images. A focal area suggesting a subacute hematoma was also noted. The dynamic CT scan showed heterogeneous contrast enhancement in the arterial phase and heterogeneous spread of the enhanced area within the tumor. awareness of this finding may prevent the misdiagnosis of a tumor as a neoplastic intratumoral hemorrhage.
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24/140. Disseminated cryptococcosis presenting with adrenal insufficiency and meningitis: resistant to prolonged antifungal therapy but responding to bilateral adrenalectomy.

    A case of disseminated cryptococcosis with features of primary adrenal insufficiency and meningitis in an immunocompetent host is presented. Despite antifungal chemotherapy, neither meningitis nor bilateral adrenal gland enlargement was improved. Aspiration biopsy of the adrenal gland revealed necrotic tissue with numerous fungi, suggesting that the adrenal glands were the focus of the persistent fungemia. Removal of bilateral adrenal glands led to improvement by making the patient more sensitive to antifungal chemotherapy.
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25/140. Cystic neuroblastoma.

    In the newborn, cystic masses of the adrenal gland are unusual findings and most are secondary to hemorrhage. We present a patient with a clinical history typical for adrenal hemorrhage who was found to have a thick walled cystic adrenal mass on both physical and ultrasound examination. During evaluation the mass decreased in size, but vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and homovanillic acid (HVA) levels were elevated. laparotomy and left adrenalectomy confirmed the diagnosis of a cystic neuroblastoma. Adrenal cyst, adrenal abscess, and cystic neuroblastoma are all rare entities in the newborn. We recommend that all cystic masses of the adrenal be evaluated by urinary VMA and HVA and that the possibility of cystic neuroblastoma be kept in mind when an adrenal cystic mass is followed nonoperatively.
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26/140. Pseudocyst of adrenal gland.

    cysts of the adrenal gland are uncommon. We report a case of symptomatic pseudocyst of adrenal gland in an adult male, which was excised through retropertoneoscopic route. Surgery was uneventful and patient returned to pre-operative activity within seven days of operation. At ten months of follow up patient is asymptomatic and doing well.
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27/140. Bilateral neonatal adrenal abscess. Report of two cases and review of the literature.

    Neonatal adrenal abscess is an extremely rare condition. 32 cases, 4 bilateral, have been described in the world literature. We treated successfully other two bilateral cases. We report on this rare condition and review the world literature. In our Department we observed two patients in the neonatal period with abdominal distension, vomiting, irritability and fever. Abdominal ultrasound (US), plain x-ray of the abdomen, intravenous pyelography and computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen were performed. In both cases bilateral suprarenal cystic masses were identified. vanilmandelic acid, homovanillic acid and cathecolamines were normal. The two neonates underwent a surgical exploration. Abscesses were found and drained releasing a moderate amount of haemorrhagic and purulent materials from the adrenal glands. Post-operative histology on the surgical specimen showed in both cases an abscess in partial haemorrhagic adrenal glands. No neoplastic cells were observed. The recovery was uneventful and at six months follow-up both patients were well and without signs of adrenal insufficiency. Haematogenous bacteria seeding a normal gland or abscess formation in a previous haemorrhagic gland are the most accredited theories. neuroblastoma, Wilm's tumor and renal duplication with dilatation of the upper segment must be considered in the differential diagnosis. Percutaneous drainage ( /- biopsy) under CT or US guide should be considered the treatment of choice, followed by surgical exploration when diagnosis is not clear.
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28/140. Unilateral adrenalectomy improves insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus in a patient with ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia.

    ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH) is a rare cause of Cushing's syndrome. Bilateral adrenalectomy is considered to be a standard therapy for AIMAH, although lifetime replacement of glucocorticoids is necessary after the procedure. This paper describes a subject with AIMAH who underwent unilateral adrenalectomy of the predominantly enlarged gland and subsequently displayed an improvement in insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus, the cardinal symptoms before the operation, concomitant with alleviation of abnormal cortisol secretion. The patient was a 61-year-old man with a body mass index of 25.6 kg/m2. He was diagnosed as having diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia at 50 years of age. Eight years after diagnosis, bilateral enlargement of the adrenal glands was revealed by chance upon computed tomography of the abdomen. Typical manifestations of Cushing's syndrome were not demonstrated. Basal levels of serum and urinary cortisol had not increased, although the serum cortisol level displayed no circadian rhythm and no response to the administration of dexamethasone. Despite sulfonylurea treatment, the patient's HbA1C level was as high as 7.6% (normal range 4.3-5.8%). fasting insulin concentration was increased to 42.6 microU/ml, and the homeostasis model insulin resistance index (HOMA-R) was calculated to be 15.5 (with a normal range of less than 2.5), indicating severe insulin resistance. Unilateral adrenalectomy of the predominantly enlarged gland revealed that the resected gland consisted of multiple nodules of various sizes. Based on endocrinological, radiological, and pathological findings, a diagnosis of AIMAH was made. Ten months after the unilateral adrenalectomy, cortisol circadian rhythms were restored, and serum cortisol concentration was suppressed in response to the administration of low doses of dexamethasone, suggesting an improvement in the cortisol secretory pattern. Levels of HbA1C, fasting insulin, and HOMA-R decreased to 5.7%, 12.7 microU/ml, and 2.2, respectively. An improvement in hyperlipidemia was also observed. insulin resistance and glucose intolerance are recognized as features of mild hypercortisolism. In the present case, unilateral adrenalectomy was effective in ameliorating insulin resistance and improving glycemic control. Unilateral adrenalectomy might be an alternative therapy for improvement of glucose and lipid metabolism in subjects with AIMAH.
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29/140. Cytomegalic adrenal hypoplasia with pituitary cytomegaly.

    A case of cytomegalic congenital adrenal hypoplasia (C.C.A.H.) is reported with similar cytomegalic changes in the hypophysis. In this case the pituitary gland was small as were the thyroid and testes. The various groups of patients with C.A.H. are presented. Associated pituitary cytomegaly does not appear to have been previously described, and this association between the adrenal and pituitary changes is discussed. It is suggested that the adrenal cytomegaly is the result of overstimulation by the pituitary and the similar change in the latter may be the result of overstimulation of a hypoplastic organ.
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30/140. Hemophagocytic syndrome associated with bilateral adrenal gland tuberculosis.

    We report a case of a patient who presented with hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) and adrenal crisis associated with bilateral adrenal gland tuberculosis, and resulted in a poor outcome. A 50-year-old man was transferred to our hospital from a local clinic due to fever, weight loss, and bilateral adrenal masses. Laboratory findings showed leukopenia, mild anemia, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen revealed bilateral adrenal masses and hepatosplenomegaly. CT-guided adrenal gland biopsy showed numerous epithelioid cells and infiltration with caseous necrosis consistent with tuberculosis. bone marrow aspiration and biopsy showed significant hemophagocytosis without evidence of malignancy, hence HPS associated with bilateral adrenal tuberculosis was diagnosed. During anti-tuberculosis treatment the patient showed recurrent hypoglycemia and hypotension. Rapid ACTH stimulation test revealed adrenal insufficiency, and we added corticosteroid treatment. But pancytopenia, especially thrombocytopenia, persisted and repeated bone marrow aspiration showed continued hemophagocytosis. On treatment day 41 multiple organ failure occurred in the patient during anti-tuberculous treatment and steroid replacement.
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