Cases reported "Adrenal Gland Diseases"

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1/62. Haemorrhage into non-functioning adrenal cysts--report of two cases and review of the literature.

    Adrenal cysts are a rare condition and are usually non-functioning and asymptomatic. Most of the reported cases were incidental findings or discovered at autopsy. However, large cysts have a tendency to develop complications such as intracystic haemorrhage and rupture, which can present as an acute surgical emergency. We report two cases of adrenal cysts with intracystic haemorrhage. One patient presented with persistent non-specific upper abdominal pain, investigations with ultrasound (US) scan and computed tomographic (CT) scan revealed a left adrenal cyst and gallstones. Simultaneous cholecystectomy and adrenalectomy was performed with resultant relief of symptoms. The second patient presented with acute abdominal pain simulating acute surgical abdomen. Preoperative CT scan showed a large cystic lesion in the region of the tail of the pancreas with radiological evidence of haemorrhage but was unable to confirm its origin. The cyst was found to have arisen from the left adrenal gland at laparotomy; left adrenalectomy with complete excision of the cyst was done. histology showed pseudocyst with haemorrhage in both cases. Pseudocyst is the commonest histological type encountered clinically. We believe the second case is related to pregnancy and childbirth as the patient presented during puerperium and the cyst, even though very large in size (25 x 15 x 15 cm), was not noted during antenatal screening with US scan.
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2/62. Idiopathic adrenal hemorrhage.

    A case of idiopathic adrenal hemorrhage is reported. A 76-year-old woman exhibited a left adrenal tumor, 3 cm in diameter, on abdominal computed tomography. The patient was receiving aspirin medication for atrial fibrillation. There was no evidence of increased adrenal hormones. The mass enlarged to 6 cm in diameter within 18 months, and malignancy was suspected. The mass was diagnosed as adrenal hematoma by operative findings.
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3/62. Inguinoscrotal bruising: a sign of neonatal adrenal hemorrhage.

    A 5-day-old baby presented with right inguinoscrotal bruising. The underlying testis and cord were normal on examination. Intra-abdominal bleeding was suspected. Abdominal ultrasound showed right adrenal hemorrhage. This was managed nonoperatively and with supportive therapy; the inguinoscrotal bruising resolved spontaneously.
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4/62. Suprarenal abscess in the neonate: a case report and review of diagnosis and management.

    A case of unilateral suprarenal abscess is reported. This is the third such reported case, and the first reported case successfully treated with preservation of the kidney. diagnosis and treatment were aided significantly by a thorough preoperative radiological evaluation, including angiography.
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5/62. Isolated hydatid cyst of the adrenal gland.

    Hydatide disease of the adrenal gland is extremely rare, even in disseminated disease. Isolated cyst of the gland is even more rare. Only 9 of such cases seem to have been described so far. We present a 49 year old woman in whom a hydatide cyst of the right gland was found during the investigation for the dull pain in the area. She was successfully operated. Hydatide etiology was confirmed at operation and by histology. She had an uneventful recovery. The preoperative pain disappeared postoperatively.
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ranking = 2
keywords = operative
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6/62. Adrenal hemorrhage: a 25-year experience at the Mayo Clinic.

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the clinical course of adrenal hemorrhage (AH) by using a systematic review of the presentation, associated conditions, and outcomes in patients with AH seen at our institution between 1972 and 1997 (a 25-year period). patients AND methods: A computer search of recorded dismissal diagnoses identified 204 patients with a diagnosis of AH, but only 141 fulfilled our study criteria. Their records were analyzed systematically by presentation, bilateral or unilateral hemorrhage, corticosteroid treatment, and survival. RESULTS: AH is a heterogeneous entity that occurs in the postoperative period, in the antiphospholipid-antibody syndrome, in heparin-associated thrombocytopenia, or in the setting of severe physical stress and multiorgan failure. Standard laboratory evaluation is not helpful in establishing the diagnosis. Of the 141 cases of AH, 78 were bilateral, and 63 were unilateral. Corticosteroid treatment in situations of severe stress or sepsis had little effect on outcome (9% vs. 6% survival with and without corticosteroid treatment, respectively). This is in sharp contrast to AH occurring postoperatively (100% vs. 17% survival with or without treatment, respectively) or in the antiphospholipid-antibody syndrome (73% vs. 0% survival, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: A high index of suspicion is required to make a timely diagnosis of AH. fever and hypotension in the appropriate clinical setting necessitate further investigation. Although the diagnosis of AH is infrequently made while the patient is alive, appropriate imaging techniques are useful for establishing a timely diagnosis. In severe physical stress or sepsis, AH may be a marker of severe, preterminal physiologic stress and poor outcome.
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keywords = operative
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7/62. Diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma with large prenatally detected cystic adrenal masses.

    OBJECTIVES: The prenatal finding of a large cystic adrenal mass raises the dilemma of the differential diagnosis between adrenal hemorrhage and cystic neuroblastoma. The possibility of a neuroblastoma usually leads to surgical excision of such tumors. Nevertheless, an adrenal hemorrhage has to be recognized, so that unnecessary surgery may be avoided. methods: Three cases of large prenatally detected adrenal masses managed nonoperatively are reported. Data studied were: age at the diagnosis, prenatal and postnatal ultrasonographic consistency, and tumor marker levels. Size and sonographic evolution were also studied. RESULTS: In all 3 cases, a cystic mass, measuring more than 40 mm in size, was detected during the 3rd trimester of pregnancy. The sonographic appearance evolved from a sonolucent tumor to a heterogeneous mass with hyperechoic areas. The tumor marker levels were normal. All infants had a documented decrease in mass size at birth and were managed nonoperatively. All these tumors were considered adrenal hemorrhages. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal ultrasonography rarely permits to distinguish an adrenal hemorrhage from a cystic neuroblastoma. The differential diagnosis, even in large masses, is based on close postnatal follow-up with serial sonography. Surgery is not mandatory, unless the size does not decrease. However, without pathologic proof, it is not possible to differentiate an adrenal hemorrhage from a spontaneously resolved neuroblastoma.
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ranking = 2
keywords = operative
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8/62. Postoperative adrenal hemorrhage.

    Twelve elderly patients without waterhouse-friderichsen syndrome or adrenal tumor who had spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage one to 33 days after operation are described. Seven of these patients had operations on the gastrointestinal tract, one on the biliary system, two on the genitourinary system and two on the central nervous system. Important factors relating to adrenal hemorrhage included: intra-abdominal sepsis in 5 patients, cancer in 4, pneumonia in 4, coagulation defects in 2, exogenous steroids in 2, and syphilis in one patient. Spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage should be considered in patients whose condition deteriorates rapidly after operation and in whom no other explanation is plausible. Its detection and appropriate therapy can be lifesaving.
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ranking = 4
keywords = operative
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9/62. Vascular and bowel complications during retroperitoneal laparoscopic surgery.

    PURPOSE: We report on vascular and bowel complications during major retroperitoneal laparoscopic renal and adrenal surgery. MATERIALS AND methods: A total of 404 patients underwent retroperitoneoscopy for various renal and adrenal pathology between July 1997 and February 2001. The occurrence of intraoperative vascular and bowel injuries, specific intraoperative circumstances, management techniques and outcomes were evaluated. RESULTS: There were 7 vascular injuries (1.7%) and 1 bowel injury (0.25%), which involved the right adrenal vein (2), left renal vein (2), right renal vein (1), right renal artery (1), inferior vena cava (1) and a superficial, small serosal injury to the duodenum (1). Of these 8 cases 5 (63%) had been treated prior with major open intra-abdominal surgery. Average blood loss for patients with vascular injuries was 1,186 cc (range 300 to 3,000). Of the 8 cases 1 was converted to open surgery and in another 2 cases the vascular injury was controlled through the extraction incision, which had already been created. Retroperitoneoscopic control and repair without open conversion were possible in each of the most recent 5 cases. Of the 404 cases open conversion has not been necessary for control of vascular or bowel complications in the most recent 200 cases, demonstrating the impact of the learning curve. CONCLUSIONS: During major renal and adrenal retroperitoneoscopic surgery our incidence of vascular and bowel injuries was 1.7% and 0.25%, respectively. With experience inadvertent vascular and bowel injuries can be efficaciously controlled retroperitoneoscopically despite the somewhat small operative field available.
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ranking = 3
keywords = operative
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10/62. Virilization in bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia controlled by luteinizing hormone.

    We report a case of a virilized 59-yr-old woman with elevated serum testosterone levels and bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia. The patient underwent laparoscopic right adrenalectomy, after which the elevated testosterone level transiently normalized. The immediate postoperative depression of the testosterone level suggested that the process was driven by gonadotropins that were suppressed by the stress of surgery. The excised right adrenal mass contained testosterone by immunohistochemistry and LH receptor mRNA by in situ hybridization. The recurrence of hyperandrogenemia suggested that the enlarged left adrenal was also secreting testosterone. The serum testosterone level increased in response to im injection of human chorionic gonadotropin, suggesting control by aberrant LH receptors. Injection of leuprolide acetate (7.5 mg im) to suppress LH levels resulted in normalization of the testosterone level 12 d later that persisted for several weeks. Ectopic receptors mediating Cushing's syndrome have been described in several cases of bilateral adrenal hyperplasia and adrenal adenoma. This is the first case to our knowledge in which pure androgen overproduction in adrenal hyperplasia has been shown to be controlled by LH receptors. In our patient, the control of androgen secretion by LH may explain the postmenopausal onset of virilization and the transient postoperative normalization of the serum testosterone level.
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ranking = 2
keywords = operative
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