Cases reported "adrenal gland diseases"

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1/424. Adrenal scintigraphy with 131-I-adosterol.

    A new adrenal scanning agent, adosterol (131I-6beta-iodomethyl-19-norcholest-5(10)-en-3beta-ol) has been evaluated in three female patients with hypercorticism. In one case, characterised by recurrent adrenocortical hyperactivity after bilateral adrenalectomy, a remnant of adrenal tissue was detected. In two other cases, the presence of an adrenal tumour could be excluded. The scan made on the 6th day after the administration of adosterol was found to be superior in quality to that made on the 13th day. ( info)

2/424. Adrenal calcification in children: a case report.

    Unilateral adrenal calcification was encountered incidentally in a 9-year-old boy during evaluation of enuresis. He was a large baby at birth, and perinatal history was suggestive of difficult labor. The case has been discussed through the possible causes of adrenal calcification and the management of these children. Once the diagnosis of idiopathic adrenal calcification is made in light of detailed perinatal history, biochemical investigations, and roentgenologic examinations, these children can be observed by control evaluations with regular intervals. ( info)

3/424. Prenatal sonographic detection of adrenal hemorrhage confirmed by postnatal surgery.

    We report a case of adrenal hemorrhage in a newborn first detected by sonography at a menstrual age of 21 weeks 4 days. An echogenic mass was noted above the right kidney. The mass became larger and hypoechoic on follow-up sonograms after birth. The mass was also seen on abdominal CT. Because it was difficult to differentiate the lesion from cystic neuroblastoma and because it shrank only modestly by 2 months after birth, we performed a surgical exploration when the patient was 2 months old, and adrenal hemorrhage was confirmed. This case suggests that adrenal hemorrhage can occur as early as the second trimester of pregnancy. ( info)

4/424. Posttraumatic hypertension secondary to adrenal hemorrhage mimicking pheochromocytoma: case report.

    We report the case of a 68-year-old man who presented with a mass 3 x 4 cm in size located in the right adrenal gland together with extreme hypertension, tripled urine levels for normetanephrine, and normal plasmatic levels of metanephrines. The patient had suffered a fall from a height of 2.5 meters before hospitalization. [123I]MIBG-scan was repeatedly positive in the area of the right adrenal gland. At laparotomy under alpha-adrenergic blocking agents, the suspected pheochromocytoma was histologically confirmed as hematoma. After resection of the adrenal gland, blood pressure returned to normal without drug therapy as did metanephrine levels in urine. Although adrenal insufficiency after distension of the gland caused by hemorrhage has been reported, there are no data available regarding the mimicking of a hormonally active pheochromocytoma. We conclude that intra-adrenal pressure rise caused by hematoma may cause partial ischemic necrosis to the gland but may also induce reactive hyperplasia with periodic excessive secretion of catecholamines. This interpretation is consistent with the finding that plasma levels of catecholamines were normal in contrast to the urinary normetanephrines in the presented case. It might be worthwhile to investigate patients with intra-adrenal hemorrhage immediately after sustaining multiple injuries and in the posttraumatic course of several months up to 1 or more years together with verification of abnormal urinary excretion of metanephrines as a sign of impaired adrenal function. ( info)

5/424. Disseminated histoplasmosis presenting as bilateral adrenal masses.

    histoplasma capsulatum is a universal dimorphic fungus found mainly in soil contaminated with excrement of birds and bats. Bilateral adrenal masses with massive tissue destruction are a rare primary presentation of disseminated histoplasmosis. As it behaves as an opportunistic pathogen there is a higher susceptibility for dissemination on those patients with immunodeficiency or immunosuppression. We report a case in an elderly diabetic patient with bilateral adrenal enlargement, diagnosed as histoplasmosis only after surgical exploration, with symptoms probably occurring at least 60 years after the original infection. She was successfully treated with itraconazole. ( info)

6/424. Multicentric warfarin-induced skin necrosis complicating heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.

    Two patients developed catastrophic multicentric skin necrosis while receiving warfarin to treat venous thromboembolism complicated by immune-mediated heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). Patient 1 developed skin necrosis involving the breasts, thighs, and face, as well as venous limb gangrene and bilateral hemorrhagic necrosis of the adrenal glands, resulting in death. The second patient developed bilateral mammary necrosis necessitating mastectomies, as well as skin necrosis involving the thigh. Neither patient had an identifiable hypercoagulable syndrome, other than HIT. HIT may represent a risk factor for the development of multicentric warfarin-induced skin necrosis (WISN). ( info)

7/424. Adrenal endothelial cyst with massive central calcification.

    A 55-year-old woman was treated for a rare case of adrenal endothelial cyst that was detected incidentally during management of abdominal pain. Computed tomography of the tumor displayed massive central calcification and a fluid-fluid level by intracystic hemorrhage. magnetic resonance imaging showed an intracystic papillary part with calcification. After surgery, the tumor was diagnosed as an angiomatous type of adrenal endothelial cyst. ( info)

8/424. Hemorrhagic adrenal cyst: an unusual reason of acute hypovolemia.

    Adrenal cysts are often asymptomatic and included in the larger "incidentaloma" group. They may reach significant size without onset of compressive symptoms and are often left undiagnosed until an ultrasound or CT scan are performed for a vague lumbar or flank discomfort. Intracystic hemorrhage is a rare but life-threatening complication since a sudden and significant blood loss may occur without any evident clinical source, hypovolemic shock resulting as the first symptom. The authors report their personal experience in two patients along with a review of the literature on this insidious emergency, its diagnosis and therapeutic approach. ( info)

9/424. Vascular adrenal pseudocyst: cytologic and immunohistochemical study.

    Adrenal vascular cysts are rare lesions that might be considered in the differential diagnosis of adrenal tumors. Their origin is not clear. We report the clinicopathological findings of a large adrenal hemorrhagic pseudocyst (AHP) in a 73-yr-old man who complained of abdominal pain. An abdominal CT showed a 9 cm tumor in the left adrenal. A fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) was hemorrhagic and inconclusive. The tumor was excised and touch imprints were taken showing groups of spindled and fusiform cells with elongated nuclei, without atypia. Histologically, the tumor was well delimited by a fibrous capsule and contained numerous cystic spaces lined by endothelial cells and filled with erythrocytes, fibrin thrombus, and necrotic debris. Immunohistochemical study showed strong positivity for factor viii-RA, CD31, and CD34. Also, the remaining adrenal showed a prominent frame of thin and medium caliber vessels, supporting a vascular origin for this entity. This case illustrates the difficulty in making a diagnosis by FNA and to keep in mind AHP when hematic aspirates are obtained from an adrenal tumor mass. ( info)

10/424. Haemorrhage into non-functioning adrenal cysts--report of two cases and review of the literature.

    Adrenal cysts are a rare condition and are usually non-functioning and asymptomatic. Most of the reported cases were incidental findings or discovered at autopsy. However, large cysts have a tendency to develop complications such as intracystic haemorrhage and rupture, which can present as an acute surgical emergency. We report two cases of adrenal cysts with intracystic haemorrhage. One patient presented with persistent non-specific upper abdominal pain, investigations with ultrasound (US) scan and computed tomographic (CT) scan revealed a left adrenal cyst and gallstones. Simultaneous cholecystectomy and adrenalectomy was performed with resultant relief of symptoms. The second patient presented with acute abdominal pain simulating acute surgical abdomen. Preoperative CT scan showed a large cystic lesion in the region of the tail of the pancreas with radiological evidence of haemorrhage but was unable to confirm its origin. The cyst was found to have arisen from the left adrenal gland at laparotomy; left adrenalectomy with complete excision of the cyst was done. histology showed pseudocyst with haemorrhage in both cases. Pseudocyst is the commonest histological type encountered clinically. We believe the second case is related to pregnancy and childbirth as the patient presented during puerperium and the cyst, even though very large in size (25 x 15 x 15 cm), was not noted during antenatal screening with US scan. ( info)
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