Cases reported "Adrenal Gland Neoplasms"

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1/106. A case of aldosterone-producing adenoma with severe postoperative hyperkalemia.

    It is known that some patients with primary aldosteronism show postoperative hyperkalemia, which is due to inability of the adrenal gland to secrete sufficient amounts of aldosterone. However, hyperkalemia is generally neither severe nor prolonged, in which replacement therapy with mineralocorticoid is seldom necessary. We report a case of a 46-year-old woman with an aldosterone-producing adenoma associated with severe postoperative hyperkalemia. After unilateral adrenalectomy, the patient showed episodes of severe hyperkalemia for four months, which required not only cation-exchange resin, but also mineralocorticoid replacement. plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) was low, although PAC was increased after rapid ACTH test. Histological examination indicated the presence of adrenocortical tumor and paradoxical hyperplasia of zona glomerulosa in the adjacent adrenal. immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the enzymes involved in aldosterone synthesis, such as cholesterol side chain cleavage (P-450scc), 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD), and 21-hydroxylase (P-450c21), or the enzyme involved in glucocorticoid synthesis, 11beta-hydroxylase (P-450c11beta), were expressed in the tumor, but they were completely absent in zona glomerulosa of the adjacent adrenal. These findings were consistent with the patterns of primary aldosteronism. serum potassium level was gradually decreased with concomitant increase in PAC. These results suggest that severe postoperative hyperkalemia of the present case was attributable to severe suppression of aldosterone synthesis in the adjacent and contralateral adrenal, which resulted in slow recovery of aldosterone secretion. It is plausible that aldosterone synthesis of adjacent and contralateral adrenal glands is severely impaired in some cases with primary aldosteronism, as glucocorticoid synthesis in cushing syndrome.
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keywords = aldosteronism
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2/106. Hazards of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for Conn's adenoma. When enthusiasm turns to tragedy.

    A 74-year-old man with primary aldosteronism had a small tumor (27 x 23 mm) of his right adrenal gland successfully removed by a transperitoneal laparoscopy. Despite absence of malignancy in the resected tumor and complete relief of all symptoms in the immediate postoperative period, recurrence occurred 6 months later. The tumor behaved as a carcinoma spread in the peritoneal cavity, and the patient eventually died with peritoneal carcinomatosis. We suggest that the laparoscopic technique coupled with pneumoperitoneum may have favored this recurrence.
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keywords = aldosteronism
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3/106. A probable relationship between an endogenous digitalis-like substance and concentric cardiac hypertrophy in primary aldosteronism.

    A 44-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital due to severe hypertension. An electrocardiogram (ECG) and an echocardiogram showed severe left ventricular hypertrophy. Her plasma aldosterone level was elevated. magnetic resonance imaging revealed a small mass in the right adrenal gland. Before removal of the tumor, plasma endogenous digitalis-like substance (EDLS) levels were elevated. After removal of the tumor, EDLS levels quickly returned to the normal level. A series of echocardiograms and ECGs over a 6- year period after removal of the tumor showed marked regression of cardiac hypertrophy. These findings suggest that EDLS may be closely related to the development of concentric cardiac hypertrophy in primary aldosteronism.
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keywords = aldosteronism
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4/106. aldosterone-producing adenoma without hypertension: a report of two cases.

    Normotensive primary hyperaldosteronism is exceedingly rare. We report two new cases of this syndrome in two middle-aged women, one of Asian origin. The presenting signs were tetany in one case and an adrenal mass in the other. Neither patient had hypertension, despite repeated measurements with a manual armlet. A typical biological profile of primary hyperaldosteronism was demonstrated in both patients, including hypokalemia with inappropriate kaliuresis, elevated resting plasma aldosterone, and undetectable plasma renin activity. The circadian rhythm of blood pressure was studied by ambulatory monitoring pre- and post-operatively. It confirmed the lack of hypertension, but the circadian rhythm of blood pressure was lost before surgery in one patient. Surgical removal of the histologically typical aldosterone-producing adenomas normalized the kalemia. The main finding in these two patients was spontaneously low blood pressure in the post-operative period. This suggests that excess aldosterone induced relative hypertension in these patients whose blood pressure was spontaneously very low. Genetic screening for dexamethasone-sensitive hyperaldosteronism was negative in both patients.
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ranking = 1.3324628160717
keywords = aldosteronism, hyperaldosteronism
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5/106. Primary aldosteronism as a cause of severe postpartum hypertension in two women.

    Two women who first had the clinical features of primary aldosteronism in the postpartum period are described. Their gestations were virtually uneventful. After delivery, however, progressively severe hypertension (Joint National Committee VI, stage 3) with hypokalemia developed. pregnancy may conceal the clinical symptoms of primary aldosteronism that causes unexpected severe hypertension in the postpartum period.
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keywords = aldosteronism
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6/106. Unmasking of primary hyperaldosteronism by renal transplantation.

    BACKGROUND: Primary hyperaldosteronism is an uncommon cause of hypertension in the general population. Given the mechanism of action of aldosterone clinical manifestations may not occur in the setting of end stage renal disease. However, if a successful renal transplant is performed clinical manifestations may occur. methods: We present a case of a patient with a preexisting adrenal adenoma who only presented with clinical signs of hyperaldosteronism after renal transplantation. patients' work-up included plasma aldosterone, plasma renin activity, serum cortisol, and estimation of trans tubular potassium gradient. RESULTS: The patient's serum aldosterone was markedly elevated with a relatively suppressed plasma renin activity. Trans tubular potassium gradient was high in the presence of hypokalemia. CONCLUSION: Previously silent hyperaldosteronism may be unmasked by a successful renal transplant.
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ranking = 3.1090799041673
keywords = aldosteronism, hyperaldosteronism
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7/106. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for primary hyperaldosteronism during pregnancy.

    Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed early in the second trimester of pregnancy in a woman with an aldosteronoma causing hypertension (254/154 mm Hg). The patient was later delivered of a healthy baby. With suitable precautions and timing, major laparoscopic surgery can be performed safely during pregnancy.
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ranking = 1.7766170880956
keywords = aldosteronism, hyperaldosteronism
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8/106. Three patients with adrenal tumors having been treated simply for diabetes mellitus.

    Three patients with functional adrenal tumors, Cushing's syndrome, primary aldosteronism and pheochromocytoma, who underwent adrenalectomy and were subsequently cured, were studied. All these patients had been treated for diabetes for several years before the diagnosis of adrenal tumors. In each case the state of diabetes before and after surgery, including parameters of insulin secretion and insulin resistance, was compared to demonstrate how the adrenal disorder influenced the nature of diabetes. In the case of Cushing's syndrome the hypercortisolemia caused insulin resistance in the peripheral tissues. In the case of primary aldosteronism, excessive production of aldosterone diminished insulin secretion possibly through hypokalemia. pheochromocytoma affected both insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity through hypersecretion of catecholamines. In all these patients the adrenal tumors were found in clinical contexts other than management of diabetes itself. By careful retrospective review of these three patients' history, several important points that might have drawn the physician's attention to the underlying adrenal disorders were pointed out. These included past history of acute myocardial infarction with onset at unexpectedly young age in the case of Cushing's syndrome and unexpectedly high insulin resistance for the patient's body mass index in the case of pheochromocytoma.
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keywords = aldosteronism
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9/106. Primary aldosteronism in pregnancy.

    Aldosteronism is a rare complication of pregnancy. We report a case of a 26-year-old woman who became pregnant soon after a diagnosis of primary aldosteronism due to left adrenal adenoma was made. Only oral potassium supplementation was required in addition to routine prenatal care until 36 weeks' gestation. Subsequently, antihypertensive medication was needed to control elevated blood pressure. A healthy male infant was delivered by cesarean section because of abruptio placentae. The postoperative course was uneventful. Left adrenalectomy was conducted eight months after delivery under laparoscopic visualization. In this case report, we discuss management of aldosteronism in pregnancy and review the literature.
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ranking = 2
keywords = aldosteronism
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10/106. Intermittent hyperaldosteronism in a child due to an adrenal adenoma.

    aldosterone producing adenoma (APA) is a rare but potentially curable form of paediatric hypertension. We report a case of APA in a 9-year-old boy, suspected due to persistent hypokalaemia. Neither BP nor initial laboratory investigations disclosed the diagnosis and the presence of an APA was suggested by functional tests and radiological findings. Histologically, a cortical tumour was found associated with a marked medullary hyperplasia of both chromaffin and ganglion cells. CONCLUSION: This case reinforces the need for further investigations in patients with misleading clinical and laboratory data.
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ranking = 1.7766170880956
keywords = aldosteronism, hyperaldosteronism
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