Cases reported "Adrenal Gland Neoplasms"

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1/408. MR imaging of a case of adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland.

    The aim of this case report is to describe the appearance on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of an incidentally found adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland, and to evaluate the utility of MRI in characterizing this type of tumor. The appearance of the tumor was nonspecific on T1-weighted in-phase, opposed-phase, and T2-weighted images, as well as its behavior after paramagnetic contrast administration, outlining the differential diagnosis among carcinoma, metastatic tumors, and pheochromocytoma. After surgery, the pathologic diagnosis was adenomatoid benign tumor of mesothelial origin. Although MRI enables the characterization of most benign lesions of the adrenal gland, the appearance of other lesions is nonspecific. In our case, MRI did not assist in preoperative diagnosis, guiding us towards a diagnosis of malignancy.
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2/408. heart failure induced by pheochromocytoma: laparoscopic treatment and intraoperative changes of several new cardiovascular hormones.

    Since 1992, adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma has been recognized as a safe and efficient technique when performed by a laparoscopic approach. Most of the cases of pheochromocytomas treated as such and published in the literature were not associated with malignant hypertension and acute heart failure. We report the case of a 23-year-old woman who presented with this clinical picture and show that laparoscopic adrenalectomy may be as safe and efficient as conventional adrenalectomy when performed in this situation. The intraoperative changes in the secretion of catecholamines, endothelin-1, angiotensin ii, N- and C-terminus of atrial natriuretic factor prohormone were also analyzed. Noradrenaline release during tumor dissection was associated with a stimulation of atrial natriuretic factor.
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keywords = operative
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3/408. Management of adrenal metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma by asynchronous resection of bilateral adrenal glands.

    We report on a 65-year-old man who received asynchronous bilateral adrenalectomy for adrenal metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma. Fifteen months after curative resection of right hepatic lobe for hepatocellular carcinoma, a metastatic lesion of the left adrenal gland was detected and left adrenalectomy was performed. Ten months after the second operation, a metastatic lesion in the right adrenal gland, associated with tumor thrombus in the inferior vena cava, was revealed. Transcatheter arterial embolization of the arteries feeding the metastatic tumor was performed, but its effects were incomplete. As there was the tumor thrombus in the inferior vena cava and no other intrahepatic recurrence or extrahepatic metastasis was found, resection of the right adrenal gland with tumor thrombus, without the employment of veno-venous bypass, was performed, followed by postoperative hormonal supplementation. Changes in the patient's alpha-fetoprotein level were clinically useful for the detection of the metastatic lesions and the evaluation of therapeutic effects. Metastasis to adrenal gland from hepatocellular carcinoma should be actively managed, and the appropriate surgical treatment selected, if intrahepatic recurrence and/or other extrahepatic metastasis are controlled. To achieve higher curability and better outcome in patients with bilateral adrenal metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma, bilateral total adrenalectomy is indicated, accompanied by effective postoperative hormonal supplementation.
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4/408. Unilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy followed by contralateral retroperitoneoscopic partial adrenalectomy in a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2a syndrome.

    We report the first patient who had bilateral pheochromocytoma associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2a syndrome (MEN 2a) and underwent unilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy followed by contralateral retroperitoneoscopic partial adrenalectomy 2 years later. The postoperative course was uneventful both times, and the patient was cured of hypertension without any need for steroid replacement. Endoscopic partial adrenalectomy is a minimally invasive procedure for pheochromocytoma with mild symptoms. We believe that this procedure has considerable potential for treating bilateral pheochromocytoma, which is frequently observed in patients with MEN 2a.
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keywords = operative
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5/408. A case of aldosterone-producing adenoma with severe postoperative hyperkalemia.

    It is known that some patients with primary aldosteronism show postoperative hyperkalemia, which is due to inability of the adrenal gland to secrete sufficient amounts of aldosterone. However, hyperkalemia is generally neither severe nor prolonged, in which replacement therapy with mineralocorticoid is seldom necessary. We report a case of a 46-year-old woman with an aldosterone-producing adenoma associated with severe postoperative hyperkalemia. After unilateral adrenalectomy, the patient showed episodes of severe hyperkalemia for four months, which required not only cation-exchange resin, but also mineralocorticoid replacement. plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) was low, although PAC was increased after rapid ACTH test. Histological examination indicated the presence of adrenocortical tumor and paradoxical hyperplasia of zona glomerulosa in the adjacent adrenal. immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the enzymes involved in aldosterone synthesis, such as cholesterol side chain cleavage (P-450scc), 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD), and 21-hydroxylase (P-450c21), or the enzyme involved in glucocorticoid synthesis, 11beta-hydroxylase (P-450c11beta), were expressed in the tumor, but they were completely absent in zona glomerulosa of the adjacent adrenal. These findings were consistent with the patterns of primary aldosteronism. serum potassium level was gradually decreased with concomitant increase in PAC. These results suggest that severe postoperative hyperkalemia of the present case was attributable to severe suppression of aldosterone synthesis in the adjacent and contralateral adrenal, which resulted in slow recovery of aldosterone secretion. It is plausible that aldosterone synthesis of adjacent and contralateral adrenal glands is severely impaired in some cases with primary aldosteronism, as glucocorticoid synthesis in cushing syndrome.
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ranking = 7
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6/408. Hazards of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for Conn's adenoma. When enthusiasm turns to tragedy.

    A 74-year-old man with primary aldosteronism had a small tumor (27 x 23 mm) of his right adrenal gland successfully removed by a transperitoneal laparoscopy. Despite absence of malignancy in the resected tumor and complete relief of all symptoms in the immediate postoperative period, recurrence occurred 6 months later. The tumor behaved as a carcinoma spread in the peritoneal cavity, and the patient eventually died with peritoneal carcinomatosis. We suggest that the laparoscopic technique coupled with pneumoperitoneum may have favored this recurrence.
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keywords = operative
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7/408. Unsuspected pheochromocytoma with abdominal aortic aneurysm--a case report.

    This case report describes the peri-operative management of a 65-year-old man with an unsuspected pheochromocytoma. He underwent emergent surgery for a rupturing abdominal aortic aneurysm. During surgery his blood pressure changed dramatically and was resistant to drug treatment. A pheochromocytoma was suspected, but the emergency precluded immediate investigation. A second hypertension episode occurred in the intensive care unit, and CT revealed an abnormal adrenal mass. Surgery for the pheochromocytoma was carried out successfully later, with the hypertension being managed very carefully. We considered that exposure to extraordinary catecholamine levels from the pheochromocytoma might have contributed to the development of the abdominal aortic aneurysm.
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keywords = operative
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8/408. Anesthetic management for pheochromocytoma resection using spinal cord stimulation and intravenous nicardipine--a case report.

    We have used spinal cord stimulation (SCS), diazepam and nitrous oxide for maintenance of general anesthesia. blood pressure was maintained by bolus administration of nicardipine for the removal of pheochromocytoma. Both SCS and nicardipine reduced systemic vascular resistance and SCS increased cardiac output. However, neither SCS nor nicardipine could inhibit the release of norepinephrine. SCS proved to be useful as one of anesthetic technique during the removal of pheochromocytoma, and also in the management of postoperative pain and the prevention of complications.
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keywords = operative
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9/408. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy with the aid of the AESOP 2000 robot.

    The authors describe a left adrenalectomy for Cushing's disease with the aid of an AESOP (Automated Endoscopic System for Optimal Positioning) 2000 voice controlled robot. This device facilitated the procedure by producing a constant, stable picture allowing the operative team to concentrate principally on the dissection.
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keywords = operative
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10/408. Difficult anesthetic management during pheochromocytoma surgery.

    The anesthetic management of two middle-aged patients having surgical removal of large pheochromocytomas is described. The same team of physicians was involved in the care of the patients, including an endocrinologist, who supervised their preoperative care. Although the preoperative care included pharmacologic adrenergic receptor blockade and fluid administration, guidelines for surgical readiness did not follow those recommended in our literature. Both patients experienced severe intraoperative hypotension after complete interruption of the tumors' venous drainage, and one patient suffered a cardiac arrest. Explanations for the occurrence of these problems are discussed, including factors relating to the complexity of the disease process. However, it is conceivable that appropriate input from the anesthesiologist during the preoperative preparation of these patients may have ameliorated, if not prevented, the encountered difficulties.
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ranking = 4
keywords = operative
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