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1/7. Fertility and its complications in a patient with salt losing congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    A report is made concerning fertility and its complications in a patient with salt losing congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Fertility with a successful outcome of pregnancy has rarely been reported in women with salt losing congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Problems which have been identified in the past include non-compliance, poor endocrine follow up, secondary polycystic ovarian disease with menstrual irregularity, anovulation and problems related to sexual function. There has been only one report in the literature of a woman with salt losing congenital adrenal hyperplasia who has had two pregnancies with live births. There has been no previous report of subsequent problems with neonatal management of these children. This case highlights some of the long term hazards of management of salt losing congenital adrenal hyperplasia and reports for the first time neonatal complications possibly consequent upon prenatal maternal therapy.
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keywords = ovulation
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2/7. Mechanism for the development of ovarian cysts in patients with congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia.

    OBJECTIVE: Although ovarian cysts commonly occur in patients with congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (CLAH), the mechanism of development remains to be determined. To clarify the pathogenesis of the ovarian cysts, endocrinological examinations were performed in patients with CLAH. methods: The subjects were three Japanese CLAH patients. Basal body temperature, serum and urinary gonadotropin levels, serum and/or urinary ovarian hormones and mutations of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) gene were examined. RESULTS: The basal body temperature was not biphasic in any patient. Basal LH levels were high in all CLAH patients and markedly responded to LH-releasing hormone in two patients. Urinary gonadotropin analysis revealed repetitive LH surges in the menstrual cycles of the CLAH patients. No increase in the urinary pregnanediol suggested anovulation in all patients, and bilateral ovarian cysts were found in two of the subjects. Examination of the StAR gene revealed a frameshift mutation 840delA at codon 238, a nonsense mutation Q258X at codon 258, a homozygotic mutation at Q258X, and a compound heterozygotic mutation with 251insG and Q258X. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the development of ovarian cysts may be derived from continued anovulation in CLAH patients. Elevated LH levels may be explained by increased sensitivity of the anterior pituitary to circulating estrogen.
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keywords = ovulation
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3/7. Induction of endometrial cycles and ovulation in a woman with combined 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency due to compound heterozygous mutations on the p45017alpha gene.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the case of a Japanese woman with combined 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency (congenital adrenal hyperplasia type V) and to discuss possible therapeutic procedures in such patients. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: University hospital. PATIENT(s): A 26-year-old woman with secondary amenorrhea and primary sterility. INTERVENTION(s): Nucleotide sequencing of the P45017alpha gene (CYP17), induction of endometrial maturation with steroid hormone replacement, and ovulation induction with gonadotropin. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(s): Nucleotide sequence of CYP17, endometrial thickness and follicle diameter measured by transvaginal ultrasonography, and histologic evaluation of the endometrium. RESULT(s): Two different mutations were detected on CYP17: One was a deletion of the phenylalanine codon (TTC) at either amino acid 53 or 54 in exon 1, and the other was a missense mutation with the substitution of histidine (CAC) by leucine (CTC) at position 373 in exon 6. Repeated histologic evaluations performed during treatment with P consistently revealed an unripe endometrium with glands of the early secretory phase and markedly scanty stroma. Ultrasound examination revealed follicular growth and ovulation after gonadotropin administration, but insufficient thickness of the endometrium. CONCLUSION(s): ovulation induction was possible in this patient with 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency, but the endometrial response to steroid hormone replacement was extremely poor.
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ranking = 6
keywords = ovulation
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4/7. Monitoring of menstrual cycles, ovulation, and adrenal suppression by saliva sampling in female patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlation between menstrual cycles, ovulation, and adrenal suppression in congenital adrenal hyperplasia. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: An academic outpatient clinic. PATIENT(S): Five females with salt-wasting 21-hydroxylase deficiency, aged 15.5 to 22.9 years; one had amenorrhea, one had irregular bleeding, and three had regular bleeding. INTERVENTION(S): Daily morning saliva sampling for 40 to 280 days. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Salivary levels of progesterone (P), 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), and androstenedione. RESULT(S): In the amenorrheic patient, the elevated P and 17-OHP levels decreased when the glucocorticoid dose was increased, and subsequently menarche occurred. The androstenedione levels were normal. The correlations between P and 17-OHP levels before and after menarche suggest that adrenal progesterone had prevented menarche. The patient with irregular bleeding showed slightly elevated androstenedione levels and increased levels of 17-OHP and P in an irregular pattern, without correlation in time with vaginal bleeding. Three patients with regular cycles showed a biphasic pattern of P levels, indicating ovulation. CONCLUSION(S): These longitudinal data support the hypothesis that menstrual cycling in females with 21-hydroxylase deficiency can be prevented or disturbed by elevated progesterone levels of adrenal origin, in the absence of androgen excess. Increasing glucocorticoid dose could suppress adrenal progesterone production, resulting in menarche.
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ranking = 6
keywords = ovulation
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5/7. Two cases of partial 21 hydroxylase deficiency associated with progesterone excess.

    Two cases of partial 21 hydroxylase deficiency are presented where inappropriate follicular phase progesterone secretion was documented and ultrasonography demonstrated a failure of the normal endometrial and uterine growth towards ovulation.
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keywords = ovulation
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6/7. Induction of ovulation with the sole use of clomiphene citrate in late-onset 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

    Late-onset 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) is a congenital enzymatic defect in the glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid steroidogenic pathways. The manifestations, including hirsutism and infertility, usually occur at puberty or young adulthood. In infertile, anovulatory women with late-onset 21-OHD, the usual therapy is glucocorticoids for ovulation induction. In this case, we report the sole use of clomiphene citrate to induce ovulation in a patient with late-onset 21-OHD. A hirsute and oligomenorrheic woman was diagnosed as having polycystic ovary syndrome at age 25. Her hirsutism responded to oral contraceptives. At age 31, she was given clomiphene citrate alone for ovulation induction and conceived in her fourth cycle. At age 36, because of increased hirsutism she was diagnosed with late-onset 21-OHD by an ACTH stimulation test. The induction of ovulation in late-onset 21-OHD patients has been with glucocorticoids. Given the success in inducing ovulation with clomiphene citrate alone in this patient with well-documented late-onset 21-OHD, it may be worthwhile to study the sole use of clomiphene citrate for ovulation induction in these patients.
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keywords = ovulation
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7/7. Substitution with testosterone as aromatizable substrate for induction of follicular maturation, estradiol production and ovulation in a patient with 17 alpha-hydroxylase deficiency.

    17 alpha-Hydroxylase Deficiency (17 alpha-OHDS) is a rare defect of steroid biosynthesis, characterized by the inability to synthesize cortisol, androgens or estrogens, by the complete absence of follicular maturation, hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, primary amenorrhea and hypertension. Since the ovaries of such patients contain numerous primordial follicles, we hypothesized that the absence of spontaneous follicular maturation could be due to a lack of aromatizable substrate. To provide this substrate, testosterone was administered either by intra-ovarian injection or by vaginal administration. Ovarian stimulation was performed with human urinary gonadotropins. Follicular maturation and ovulation could be induced by this treatment, as determined from ultrasonography, the analysis of LH, estradiol and progesterone serum levels and the aspiration of oocytes from the mature follicles. fertilization of these oocytes in vitro, however, did not succeed. We conclude that follicular maturation can be induced in 17 alpha-OHDS by gonadotropins when testosterone is provided as an aromatizable substrate and that estrogens are a necessary component of follicular maturation.
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keywords = ovulation
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