Cases reported "Adrenoleukodystrophy"

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1/52. Late-onset adrenoleukodystrophy associated with long-standing psychiatric symptoms.

    BACKGROUND: It is not commonly appreciated that patients with adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) can first present in adulthood with psychiatric symptoms. METHOD: This case study involved a 31-year-old man who was referred for a neuropsychiatric assessment of tardive dyskinesia and treatment-resistant psychosis. Upon neurologic examination, he was found to have spasticity, marked hyperreflexia with clonus, and bilateral Babinski signs. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated severe white matter disease. Metabolic screening revealed abnormalities of very long chain fatty acids consistent with the diagnosis of ALD. These results prompted us to review the literature on late-onset ALD with attention to (1) the nature of the associated psychiatric and neurologic symptoms, (2) the neuroimaging abnormalities associated with this disorder, and (3) treatment considerations. RESULTS: Individuals with adult-onset ALD may initially present with psychiatric symptomatology. Most commonly, these patients manifest signs of mania including disinhibition, impulsivity, increased spending, hypersexuality, loudness, and perseveration. ALD patients will often have upper motor neuron findings on neurologic examination. Despite the name of the disease, patients with ALD may not have clinical evidence of adrenal dysfunction. neuroimaging reveals diffuse, confluent white matter lesions that typically originate in the parieto-occipital region. Both neuroleptic and anticholinergic medications may result in significant side effects with little resolution of the underlying psychiatric symptoms. CONCLUSION: This case study and review of the literature illustrate the importance of performing neurologic and radiological examinations on all psychiatric patients with chronic illnesses. We emphasize the importance of reexamining and reimaging patients who are not responding to standard treatment. The clinical problem of "treatment resistance" should be seen as an indication that other diagnoses, such as an underlying metabolic disorder, need to be considered.
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2/52. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: spinocerebellar variant.

    The phenotypic variability in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) can be wide and varied. Rarely, it can present with clinical signs of spinocerebellar degeneration. There are very few reported cases of selective predominant white matter disease of the cerebellum in these patients. We report a patient with a rare variant of adult onset ALD who was previously diagnosed as spinocerebellar ataxia. He was a 24-year-old male who had delayed developmental milestones, developed signs of spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) after 10 years of Addison's disease. Serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), revealed cerebellar and pontine white matter disease but sparing the cerebral cortex and supratentorial white matter. His diagnosis of X-ALD was subsequently confirmed by the elevated serum very long chain fatty acids. This patient illustrates the unusual clinical presentation and imaging features of X-ALD and the importance of considering X-ALD in the clinical context of spinocerebellar degeneration. Early recognition of this rare variant would allow proper genetic counselling and institution of dietary therapy and/or bone marrow transplantation.
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keywords = cortex
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3/52. adrenoleukodystrophy associated with vitiligo and ulcerative colitis.

    adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is an X-linked inherited disorder of lipid metabolism usually presenting in childhood or early adolescence. It is a progressive disease with symptoms of adrenal insufficiency and central nervous system demyelination. The pathology results from the accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids and an inflammatory reaction in the brain white matter. We report a case of ALD associated with adrenal insufficiency and two autoimmune diseases: vitiligo and ulcerative colitis.
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4/52. An autopsy case of atypical adrenoleukomyeloneuropathy in childhood.

    Adrenoleukomyeloneuropathy (ALMN) usually occurs in adulthood, it being extremely rare in childhood. We reported a quite atypical clinical case of ALMN as a variant of adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD). The onset was at 5 years 7 months and ataxia was the major symptom. His condition progressed rapidly to a vegetative state within 1 year. At the age of 11 years and 11 months he died of pneumonia and an autopsy was performed. We herein reported the neuropathological findings in this rare case. The autopsy revealed marked atrophy with diffuse demyelination and astrogliosis throughout the cerebrum, cerebellum and brainstem. Massive degeneration of the pyramidal tracts and loss of neurons were also seen in the spinal cord. The adrenal cortex showed marked atrophy with a striated cytoplasm in ballooned cells. These findings include pathological characteristics of both ALD and adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN), suggesting ALMN. However, diffuse demyelination with gliosis in the cerebrum and cerebellum is quite atypical for ALMN. They might explain his atypical clinical course, especially the early onset of the disease with ataxia and rapid deterioration.
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ranking = 50.952524206787
keywords = adrenal cortex, adrenal, cortex
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5/52. The dorsal root ganglia in adrenomyeloneuropathy: neuronal atrophy and abnormal mitochondria.

    Adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN), a disease of spinal cord, brain, adrenal, and testis, mostly affects men with spastic paraparesis or ataxia beginning in their second or third decade. The spinal cord displays bilateral, usually symmetrical, long tract degeneration particularly of the gracile tract in a "dying-back" pattern. The available data strongly indicate that the fundamental lesion in AMN is an axonopathy or neuronopathy. We compared lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG) from 3 AMN patients to 6 age-matched controls histologically, morphometrically, immunohistochemically, and ultrastructurally. There was no apparent neuronal loss, necrosis or apoptosis, nor obvious atrophy; nodules of Nageotte were sparse in both groups. The morphometric studies, however, did reveal neuronal atrophy with a decrease in the number of large neurons and a corresponding increase in neurons less than 2,000 microm2, especially in the 1,500-1,999 microm2 range. No consistent immunohistochemical differences were observed, and no specific cell type appeared to be lost. Many mitochondria in the AMN neurons demonstrated lipidic inclusions; this raises the possibility that, in addition to the well-known peroxisomal defect, impaired mitochondrial function may lead to a failure of ATP-dependent axoplasmic transport in AMN spinal tracts with consequent "dying-back" axonal degeneration. The observation that the DRG parent neurons of the degenerate gracile tracts in AMN undergo atrophy and do not display appreciable evidence of cell death, even at autopsy, provides a wide window of opportunity for the development of therapeutic strategies to combat or prevent this myeloneuropathy.
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6/52. adult-onset adrenoleukodystrophy: a clinical and neuropsychological study.

    adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is a rare, X-linked inherited metabolic disease, which is associated with the accumulation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) in the adrenal glands and in the central and peripheral nervous systems. ALD leads to leukoencephalic myeloneuropathy and hypoadrenalism. The two most frequent phenotypes are infantile ALD and adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN), which account for 80% of cases. adult-onset ALD is rare (1-3%). The cases reported so far have had a variable course and have often been characterised by prevalently psychiatric symptoms. We describe the case of a 37-year-old man affected by ALD whose symptoms first appeared a few years earlier in the form of worsening personality and memory disturbances, and were followed by the onset of spastic paraparesis and amyotrophy indicative of the concomitant presence of AMN. The neuropsychological alterations configure a picture of mainly frontal cortico-subcortical dementia, which is supported by magnetic resonance findings.
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7/52. Adrenal functions in children with adrenoleukodystrophy.

    BACKGROUND: adrenoleukodystrophy refers to an inherited disorder that mainly affects the adrenal gland, and the nervous system. The most common type is X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (XALD). The main presenting symptoms are behavioral changes. However, endocrinological manifestations are also important and need to be clarified especially adrenal insufficiency which is a lifethreatening condition that can be prevented. OBJECTIVE: To review the endocrinological and the adrenal functions in X-linked ALD. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: The medical records of four patients diagnosed with ALD at the endocrinology and Metabolic Unit, Department of pediatrics, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital between 1998 and 2000 were reviewed. The diagnoses were confirmed by elevated very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) levels and the typical changes seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. The adrenal functions in these patients were studied. RESULTS: All patients presented between 7-11 years of age with learning problems and behavioral changes, without symptoms of adrenal insufficiency such as nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. However, the physical signs of adrenal insufficiency such as generalized hyperpigmentation particularly on the nipples, skin creases and genitalia were present. The laboratory investigations revealed normal blood sugar and serum electrolytes. The adrenal functions were revealed as follows. Basal ACTH levels were high in 2 cases (290, > 1,250 pg/mL). Basal cortisol level was low in 1 case. ACTH stimulation tests revealed subnormal responses in 3 cases. magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed white matter degeneration in the occipital area in 2 cases and frontal area in 2 cases. CONCLUSION: adrenal insufficiency can be detected by laboratory evaluation despite the lack of symptoms, therefore, the adrenal function should be evaluated in X-ALD at diagnosis for proper management.
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keywords = adrenal
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8/52. adrenoleukodystrophy in a Chinese boy.

    We report the first Chinese boy with adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) who presented with hyperpigmentation, behavioral change and demyelination shown in magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. ALD was confirmed by the elevation of very long chain fatty acid in the serum and biochemical evidence of adrenal insufficiency. A trial of special diet with restriction of very long chain fatty acid and addition of glyceryl trierucate/glycerol trioleate oil (GTEO or Lorenzo's oil) failed to prevent clinical deterioration. The child had progressive visual loss and spastic tetraparesis despite dietary manipulation, adrenal steroid replacement and intravenous gammaglobulin treatment.
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keywords = adrenal
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9/52. Ataxic variant of adrenoleukodystrophy: MRI and CT findings.

    A 28-year-old man developed slowly progressive dysarthria and gait disturbance over 7 years. Neurological examination revealed marked ataxia of articulation and gait, mild ataxia and spasticity of all four limbs without intellectual, visual, auditory, sensory or sphincter dysfunction. No physical signs of adrenal hypofunction were found. However, analysis of fatty acid of plasma sphingomyelin showed an increase in very long chain fatty acids, compatible with the diagnosis of adrenoleukodystrophy. Computed tomography disclosed marked atrophy of the cerebellum and pons, and bilateral low-density lesions in the deep while matter of the cerebellum. magnetic resonance imaging showed these lesions more clearly, as well as other lesions in the middle and superior cerebellar peduncles, despite the absence of cerebral white matter involvement at the time of presentation. This is a rare case of adrenoleukodystrophy presenting as spinocerebellar degeneration and showing marked atrophy and several parenchymatous lesions of the cerebellum and brain stem.
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ranking = 1
keywords = adrenal
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10/52. Adrenomyeloneuropathy as a cause of primary adrenal insufficiency and spastic paraparesis.

    Adrenomyeloneuropathy is a varient of adrenoleukodystrophy, both of which are rare inherited disorders of peroxisomes characterized by the accumulation of very-long-chain fatty acids in plasma, the central and peripheral nervous systems, adrenal glands and testes, which leads to dysfunction of these organs and systems. In this article, we describe an illustrative case of adrenomyeloneuropathy and discuss the clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of the 2 disorders.
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