Cases reported "Agraphia"

Filter by keywords:



Filtering documents. Please wait...

1/53. Developmental surface dysgraphia: what is the underlying cognitive impairment?

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the cognitive causes underlying spelling difficulties in a case of developmental surface dysgraphia, AW. Our results do not support a number of possibilities that could be the cause of AW's poor orthographic lexicon, including difficulties in phonological processing, phonological short-term memory, configurational visual memory, and lexical semantic memory. We have found instead that AW performs poorly in tasks that involve detection of the order of adjacent letters in a word or the order of adjacent units in strings of consonants or symbols. Finally, he performs poorly in tasks that involve reconstructing the order of a series of complex visual characters (Japanese and Hindi characters) especially when these are presented sequentially. We advance the hypothesis that AW's poor spelling and good reading skills stem from an underlying pattern of cognitive abilities where a very good visual configurational memory is coupled with a poor ability to encode serial order. This may have resulted in a holistic word-based reading strategy, which, together with the original problem of encoding order, may have had detrimental effects for the acquisition of spelling.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = visual
(Clic here for more details about this article)

2/53. Selective uppercase dysgraphia with loss of visual imagery of letter forms: a window on the organization of graphomotor patterns.

    We report a patient who, after a left parieto-occipital lesion, showed alexia and selective dysgraphia for uppercase letters. He showed preserved oral spelling, associated with handwriting impairment in all written production; spontaneous writing, writing to dictation, real words, pseudowords, and single letters were affected. The great majority of errors were well-formed letter substitutions: most of them were located on the first position of each word, which the patient always wrote in uppercase (as he used to do before his illness). The patient also showed a complete inability to access the visual representation of letters. As demonstrated by a stroke segmentation analysis, letter substitutions followed a rule of graphomotor similarity. We propose that the patient's impairment was at the stage where selection of the specific graphomotor pattern for each letter is made and that the apparent selective disruption of capital case was due to a greater stroke similarity among letters belonging to the same case. We conclude that a visual format is necessary neither for spelling nor for handwriting.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 2
keywords = visual
(Clic here for more details about this article)

3/53. Apraxic agraphia due to thalamic infarction.

    The authors report a patient of pure apraxic agraphia with normal praxis due to left thalamic infarction. 15O-gas-PET showed reduced oxygen metabolism in the left thalamus and the left dorsolateral premotor area, while MRI and 11C-fulumazenil-PET showed no remarkable lesions in the frontal cortex. The patient's word imaging remained normal. The authors hypothesize that thalamic destruction causes pure apraxic agraphia by exerting a remote effect on left dorsolateral premotor area and blocking somewhere between graphemic area and motor programming.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1.4322580490143
keywords = cortex
(Clic here for more details about this article)

4/53. Dissociation between distal and proximal left limb agraphia and agraphesthesia in a patient with a callosal disconnection syndrome.

    A few neuropsychological studies have suggested the existence of bilateral hemispheric representations for the proximal parts of the limbs in humans. We report the case of a patient who presented with a callosal disconnection syndrome, which at a later stage of disease became restricted to left agraphia, left agraphesthesia and left auditory extinction. The anomic character of the agraphesthesia was demonstrated. Tactile naming was normal, which allows us to conclude that separate callosal pathways related to the left language areas transmit information for graphesthesia and tactile naming. agraphia and agraphesthesia were not observed when the proximal part of the left upper limb was utilized. These observations support the conclusion that writing and graphesthesia with the proximal part of the limb can be mediated by the ipsilateral cortex.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1.4322580490143
keywords = cortex
(Clic here for more details about this article)

5/53. Phonological agraphia following a focal anterior insulo-opercular infarction.

    Following a unique infarction, restricted to the left anterior insula and the adjacent part of the intrasylvian frontal opercular cortex, an 83-year-old right-handed patient acutely developed a severe speech disorder that evolved into mere mutism within a few hours. After rapid recovery from mutism, oral language was characterized by severe apraxia of speech. In-depth language investigations further disclosed an isolated, highly selective disturbance of the spelling system (phonological agraphia) which resolved rapidly. One year after onset of neurological symptoms, the apraxia of speech had almost completely receded. The anatomoclinical findings in this first representative of pure and nearly isolated phonological agraphia complement previous neuroanatomical and neurolinguistic accounts of phonological agraphia. The data not only seem to enrich current insights in the anatomical locus for phonological agraphia, they also seem to contribute to a further delineation of the insular role in phonologically mediated aphasic manifestations.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1.4322580490143
keywords = cortex
(Clic here for more details about this article)

6/53. Word-centred neglect dyslexia: evidence from a new case.

    Neglect dyslexia resulting from damage to word-centred representations is extremely rare. We report on a new case. A left-handed subject, SVE, presented with aphasia and neglect dyslexia/dysgraphia following a right hemisphere stroke. In tachistoscopic reading tasks, some of his errors resulted from retina-centred neglect, as he responded more accurately to words flashed in the left visual field than to words flashed in the right visual field. However, the critical aspects of his reading performance indicated word-centred neglect. SVE incorrectly produced the initial elements of four-letter words, regardless of stimulus location (to the left and to the right of fixation, or at fixation), and orientation (horizontal and vertical presentation). A similar distribution of errors was demonstrated in writing (very inaccurate performance on initial letters). This pattern of performance suggests damage to an abstract letter string representation defined by spatial coordinates, rather than to an ordering mechanism. It is most naturally accommodated by models of word recognition which assume a word-centred level of representation, and cannot be explained by models which do not include such a representational level. Consideration of our subject in the light of other similar reports prompts hypotheses on the neural mechanisms involved in computing word-centred representations.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.66666666666667
keywords = visual
(Clic here for more details about this article)

7/53. Crossed aphasia with left spatial neglect and visual imperception: a case report.

    A 64-year-old right-handed woman with no left-handers in the family developed aphasia associated with moderate left hemiparesis and dense left homonymous hemianopia following rupture of a right middle cerebral artery aneurysm and subsequent selective surgery confined to the right hemisphere. Severe left spatial neglect and constructional apraxia were also present. The patient was an achondroplasic dwarf whose previous medical and neurological history was otherwise unremarkable. Computed tomography of the brain showed a large right temporo-insulofrontoparietal lesion. language and nonverbal cognitive functions were assessed after 2 and 6 months, and then four years later. A reportedly overall language disruption in the acute period evolved into Wernicke's aphasia and then into a mild form of conduction aphasia. The associated left spatial neglect eventually shrank to a minimum. The patient never had clinically detectable visual agnosia, but on specific tests of visual recognition and perception some impairment was found four years after onset. The left hemiparesis disappeared in time while the left hemianopia persisted. This case is a convincing example of an entirely righthanded person in whom both linguistic and visuospatial functions are represented in the right hemisphere.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 2
keywords = visual
(Clic here for more details about this article)

8/53. Tactile agnosia and tactile aphasia: symptomatological and anatomical differences.

    Two patients with tactile naming disorders are reported. Case 1 (right hand tactile agnosia due to bilateral cerebral infarction) differentiated tactile qualities of objects normally, but could neither name nor categorize the objects. Case 2 (bilateral tactile aphasia after operation of an epidural left parietal haematoma) had as severe a tactile naming disturbance as Case 1, but could categorize objects normally, demonstrating that tactile recognition was preserved. Case 1 may be the first case of tactile agnosia clearly differentiated from tactile aphasia. CT scans of Case 1 revealed lesions in the left angular gyrus, and in the right parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. Case 2 had lesions in the left angular gyrus and of posterior callosal radiations. Our findings suggest that tactile agnosia appears when the somatosensory association cortex is disconnected by a subcortical lesion of the angular gyrus from the semantic memory store located in the inferior temporal lobe, while tactile aphasia represents a tactual-verbal disconnection.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1.4322580490143
keywords = cortex
(Clic here for more details about this article)

9/53. Remediation of alexia without agraphia: a case study.

    Following a left temporoparietal-occipital haemorrhage and surgery, a 43-year-old, right-handed male exhibited alexia without agraphia. A remediation programme consisted of training in head turning to compensate for a right visual field defect, letter-by-letter reading aloud and covertly, drill with flash-cards to improve word recognition and practice in naming objects to improve dysnomia. The patient's reading improved markedly over a 6-week period and he was able to resume work as a respiratory therapy supervisor. A post-morbid depression resolved concomitantly with the patient's return to work. The training programme and the patient's post-training approach to reading are discussed in terms of hemispheric functioning as well as 'direct path' and 'indirect path' reading. The effectiveness of training is considered in the context of spontaneous recovery.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.33333333333333
keywords = visual
(Clic here for more details about this article)

10/53. Pathologically confirmed corticobasal degeneration presenting with visuospatial dysfunction.

    Corticobasal degeneration (CBD) typically manifests as progressive asymmetric rigidity and apraxia, although other non-motor presentations have been reported. We report two patients with pathologically diagnosed CBD who presented with prominent visuospatial dysfunction. The pathological changes were maximal in the visual association cortices, but absent in 31 cases of pathologically proven CBD with more typical antemortem features. Underlying CBD should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with findings reflecting posterior cerebral dysfunction.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.33333333333333
keywords = visual
(Clic here for more details about this article)
| Next ->


Leave a message about 'Agraphia'


We do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. Click here for the full disclaimer.