Cases reported "Airway Obstruction"

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1/109. Unilateral negative pressure pulmonary edema during anesthesia with a laryngeal mask airway.

    PURPOSE: To present a case of unilateral pulmonary edema after upper airway obstruction. CLINICAL FEATURES: In a 21-yr-old man, anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with N2O/O2/isoflurane via an LMA. After being placed in the lateral position, he had an episode of upper airway obstruction while breathing spontaneously. Hypoxemia (SpO2 80-83%) refractory to the administration of oxygen (F1O2 1.0) ensued following relief of the obstruction. Chest X-ray showed edema of the dependent lung. Treatment consisted of placing the patient in the sitting position and supplemental oxygen. The situation resolved over a few hours. CONCLUSION: If airway obstruction occurs in the lateral position, development of negative pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE) in the dependent lung is favoured by hydrostatic forces and possibly the elevated resting position of the dependent hemidiaphragm.
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2/109. Anesthetic managements of the patients with giant mediastinal tumors--a report of two cases.

    anesthesia for patients with a huge anterior mediastinal tumor is a well-known challenge and trial to all the anesthesiologists. The tumor mass which directly compresses the trachea and bronchus induces hypoxia and asphyxia, eventuating in cardiac arrest or even fatality in the process of general anesthesia. In selection of anesthetic technique, general anesthesia is deliberately avoided if not mandatory or spontaneous respiration should be strictly preserved by all means if obligatory. Our surgical colleagues are usually not so familiar with this potentially life-threatening situation as are the anesthesiologists, and bad communications and interactions between the two may court disaster. Here we reported 2 cases: the former was an immediate mortality in a youth with a giant anterior mediastinal tumor undergoing excisional biopsy of a neck mass under general anesthesia, and the latter was a successful anesthetic management in a woman with a giant mediastinal tumor receiving abdominal total hysterectomy for cervical cancer in situ under spinal anesthesia. The hazards of general anesthesia in these patients and the importance of comprehending preanesthetic preparations were reviewed and discussed. Moreover, we address that whenever one has shot his bolt still futile to improve the respiratory crisis in a case with mediastinal tumor, try to ventilate the patient in a prone position as it has clinical importance in ventilation and oxygenation.
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3/109. Nonsurgical and nonextraction treatment of skeletal Class III open bite: its long-term stability.

    Two female patients, aged 14 years 5 months and 17 years 3 months with skeletal Class III open bite and temporomandibular dysfunction are presented. They had previously been classified as orthognathic surgical cases, involving first premolar removal. The primary treatment objective was to eliminate those skeletal and neuromuscular factors that were dominant in establishing their malocclusions. These included abnormal behavior of the tongue with short labial and lingual frenula, bilateral imbalance of chewing muscles, a partially blocked nasopharyngeal airway causing extrusion of the molars, with rotation of the mandible and narrowing of the maxillary arch. Resultant occlusal interference caused the mandible to shift to one side, which in turn produced the abnormal occlusal plane and curve of Spee. As a result, the form and function of the joints were adversely affected by the structural and functional asymmetry. These cases were treated by expanding the maxillary arch, which brought the maxilla downward and forward. The mandible moved downward and backward, with a slight increase in anterior facial height. Intruding and uprighting the posterior teeth, combined with a maxillary protraction, reconstructed the occlusal plane. A favorable perioral environment was created with widened tongue space in order to produce an adequate airway. myofunctional therapy after lingual and labial frenectomy was assisted by vigorous gum chewing during and after treatment, together with a tooth positioner. Normal nasal breathing was achieved.
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4/109. Intemittent obstruction of the upper airway during sleep causing profound hypoxaemia. A neglected mechanism exacerbating chronic respiratory failure.

    An obese patient with a ten year history of respiratory failure presented with insomnia and marked daytime somnolence. Respriatory failure had been attributed to obesity, respiratory centre insensitivity to carbon dioxide, and to diffuse airways obstruction. To investigate the possible role of episodic apnoea with frequent nocturnal arousals, continous recordings were obtained during sleep of arterial oxygen saturation, oesophageal pressure and the motions of the rib-cage and abdomen/diaphragm. Repeated episodes of hypoventilation and profound hypoxaemia were found which were due to intermittent obstruction of the upper airway rather than to cessation of breathing efforts. During the episodes of hypoxaemia, values of arterial O2 tension fell to as low as 24 mmHg. Episodic hypoxaemia was relieved but not abolished, by the use of a collar, designed to hold the mandible forward. Previous reports indicated that recognition of intermittent obstruction of the upper airway during sleep and treatment by a permanent tracheostomy, resulted in a significant long-term imporvement of pulmonary and cardiac function and relief of insomnia and day-time somnolence. When tracheostomy is inadvisable, as in the present patient, it is hoped that similar long-term benefits will result from a supportive collar.
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5/109. Dislodgement of bronchial foreign body during retrieval in children.

    Foreign body aspiration is a leading cause of death in children aged less than 1 year. The removal of a foreign body poses a great challenge to the skill of the anaesthetist. Four cases are presented, analysing the part played by modes of respiration in the dislodgement of a bronchial foreign body during its retrieval.
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6/109. Tracheobronchial involvement in relapsing polychondritis.

    Relapsing polychondritis (RPC) is a multisystem disorder of chondromalacia involving any cartilage. Respiratory tract involvement is the greatest threat to life. We report a patient with stenosis of the subglottic trachea and left main bronchus who suddenly ceased breathing. As this patient did not have any other clinical features of RPC, the diagnosis was difficult. CT showed circumferential worm-eaten-like thickening suggesting a deformity and edema of the tracheal mucosa. biopsy of the tracheal and thyroid cartilage revealed mild cartilage degeneration and infiltration with inflammatory cells. Therefore, the patient was diagnosed as having RPC. She is currently well 24 months after Montgomery T tube intubation with systemic steroids. Narrowing of the left main bronchus has not worsened.
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7/109. airway obstruction caused by a congenital epiglottic cyst.

    Congenital epiglottic cyst is a rare affliction with potential for airway obstruction. A newborn boy was referred to our department for evaluation of respiratory distress and inspiratory stridor 7 h after birth. Through a transnasal fiberoptic laryngoscopy examination, a diagnosis of an obstructive upper laryngeal cyst was made. Immediate endoscopic surgery was performed 20 h after birth to completely remove the lesion. Two days after surgery, the patient resumed normal breathing pattern and showed no further episodes of stridor or airway obstruction.
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8/109. The radiographic evaluation of infants with stridor.

    In the elective evaluation of infant stridor, inspiratory plain radiographs of the neck and chest are routinely obtained with fluoroscopy and a barium swallow when indicated. Several factors, including patient positioning, roentgenographic technique, and the phase of respiration, may significantly alter the appearance of the airway, reducing the diagnostic accuracy of this modality and leading to misinterpretation of the pathologic changes.
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9/109. Management of impaired vocal fold movement during sleep in a patient with shy-drager syndrome.

    A 46-year-old woman with shy-drager syndrome is presented. She has impaired vocal fold abduction during sleep, but has no laryngeal dysfunction while she is awake. In order to reduce laryngeal obstruction during sleep, she initially underwent laterofixation of 1 vocal fold (Ejnell's method) with little lasting success because of accidental slipping of the ligature. Later, she successively underwent arytenoidectomy with the use of CO2 laser. Her noctural breathing improved markedly after arytenoidectomy.
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10/109. airway obstruction during general anaesthesia in a child with congenital tracheomalacia.

    Fibreoptic bronchoscopy is often used to diagnose tracheomalacia under local anaesthesia. However, in children, general anaesthesia may be required due to difficulty in obtaining co-operation. A 1-yr-old girl with a suspected congenital tracheomalacia was scheduled for diagnostic fibreoptic bronchoscopy. During induction of anaesthesia by inhalation of increasing concentration of sevoflurane, spontaneous breathing became irregular and a partial airway obstruction occurred. Because vecuronium relieved the airway obstruction, the airway was managed using a laryngeal mask. No further airway obstruction occurred during fibrescopy under controlled ventilation, but when spontaneous breathing resumed, marked airway obstruction occurred. The trachea was intubated immediately. Caution is required to manage the airway without tracheal intubation during general anaesthesia in the patient with tracheomalacia.
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