Cases reported "Airway Obstruction"

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1/128. Progressive bronchial obstruction associated with toxic epidermal necrolysis.

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is an acute life-threatening condition, characterized by erosion of the mucous membranes, extensive detachment of the epidermis, and severe constitutional symptoms. Pulmonary complications of TEN are reported as rare, but are one of the most common causes of death. Our report focuses on an unusual case of toxic epidermal necrolysis which showed multiple bronchial obliteration during the chronic phase of the disease. Biopsied tissue of the obliterated bronchi demonstrated non-specific granulation. To improve the obliterated ventilatory function, we tried to reopen the bronchial obliteration using a balloon catheter under the guidance of fibreoptic bronchoscopy, however rapid restenosis of the bronchi ensued.
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2/128. Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis. A study of 69 patients. Groupe d'Etudes et de Recherche sur les Maladies "Orphelines" Pulmonaires (GERM"O"P).

    Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disorder of unknown cause characterized by peribronchial, perivascular, and perilymphatic proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle cells leading to cystic lesions. The hypothesis of hormonal dependence and the effectiveness of hormonal therapy have not yet been demonstrated conclusively, and the prevalence of extrathoracic manifestations and the survival of patients with LAM are somewhat contradictory. A multicentric retrospective study was conducted in an attempt to describe better the initial features, the diagnostic procedures, the associated lesions, and, above all, the management and course of LAM in a large homogeneous series of 69 stringently selected patients, with a majority of cases diagnosed since 1990. The aim of the study, based on a review of the literature, also was to provide a comprehensive view of this uncommon disease. The clinical features were in keeping with previous studies, but we found that exertional dyspnea and pneumothorax were the most common features, and chylous involvement was less frequent. LAM was diagnosed after menopause in about 10% of cases. The onset of LAM occurred during pregnancy in 20% of cases, and a clear exacerbation of LAM was observed in 14% of cases during pregnancy. Pulmonary LAM was diagnosed on lung histopathology in 83% of cases, but renal angiomyolipoma, observed in 32% of our patients, may be a useful diagnostic criterion when associated with typical multiple cysts on chest CT scan or with chylous effusion. Chest CT scan was more informative than chest X-ray (normal in 9% of cases), and may be indicated in spontaneous pneumothorax or renal angiomyolipoma in women of childbearing age. About 40% of the patients had a normal initial spirometry, while an obstructive ventilatory defect (44%), a restrictive ventilatory defect (23%), was observed in other patients. Initial diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide was frequently decreased (82%). Hormonal therapy was administered in 57 patients, but a clear > or = 15% improvement of FEV1 was observed in only 4 evaluable patients, treated with tamoxifen and progestogens (n = 2), progestogen (n = 1), and oophorectomy (n = 1). Probably 1 of the most urgent needs for clinical research in LAM is to test the currently available hormonal treatments in the context of international multicenter prospective controlled studies. pleurodesis was performed in 40 patients. lung transplantation was performed in 13 patients, 7.8 /- 5.2 years after onset of LAM, in whom the mean FEV1 was 0.57 /- 0.15 L. After a follow-up of 2.3 /- 2.2 years, 9 patients were alive. Mean follow-up from onset of disease to either death or closing date was 8.2 /- 6.3 years. overall survival was better than usually reported in LAM, and Kaplan-Meier plot showed survival probabilities of 91% after 5 years, 79% after 10 years, and 71% after 15 years of disease duration.
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3/128. Radiological findings in acute adult epiglottitis.

    Acute epiglottitis is a rare but life-threatening disease that commonly occurs in children, and also rarely in adults. The symptoms may be mild and non-specific before a rapid onset of airway obstruction occurs. early diagnosis is essential, as delayed treatment is associated with a high rate of complications including death. We present the clinical and radiological findings of this unusual condition in an adult.
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4/128. Laryngeal papillomatosis presenting as acute airway obstruction in a child.

    Upper airway obstruction, regardless of cause, can masquerade or be misdiagnosed as lower airway disease in children. In such cases, therapeutic trials of antibiotics, bronchodilators, and over-the-counter medications for symptom relief routinely fail; however, the original diagnosis often goes unchallenged. If the obstructive process is progressive, then acute occlusion of the airway may occur, rapidly leading to suffocation and death if resuscitation is unsuccessful. Outlined in this report is the case of a young female with a history of asthma, poorly responsive to outpatient treatment, who presented with respiratory arrest. The cause of the respiratory collapse was later identified as a large laryngeal papilloma, a condition rarely encountered by emergency physicians.
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5/128. Perinatal management of a neonate with airway obstruction caused by rhabdomyosarcoma of the tongue.

    Intra-oral masses in neonates can seriously compromise the airway, potentially causing hypoxia and death if not recognized and managed appropriately. We report a case in which an intra-oral mass was diagnosed on antenatal ultrasound scan. Preparation for delivery involved a multidisciplinary team approach, with a strategy for management at delivery. The child was delivered by elective Caesarean section and had a patent airway. A tracheostomy was performed immediately after delivery. The infant underwent a debulking procedure 3 weeks after birth. A histological diagnosis of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma was made and a course of chemotherapy commenced. The child had a partial response to treatment with considerable shrinkage of the tongue mass. We discuss the management options in neonates with intra-oral masses to provide an adequate airway and maintain fetal oxygenation. The differential diagnosis of fetal oral masses is reviewed.
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6/128. Dislodgement of bronchial foreign body during retrieval in children.

    Foreign body aspiration is a leading cause of death in children aged less than 1 year. The removal of a foreign body poses a great challenge to the skill of the anaesthetist. Four cases are presented, analysing the part played by modes of respiration in the dislodgement of a bronchial foreign body during its retrieval.
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7/128. A case report of aspergillus hypersensitivity syndrome with obstructing bronchial aspergillosis.

    INTRODUCTION: A 62-year-old Indian male with diabetes mellitus presented with atypical, overlap features of aspergillus hypersensitivity syndrome and obstructing bronchial aspergillosis. CLINICAL PICTURE: He was febrile and tachypnoeic with diffuse crepitations and wheezing. Chest X-ray was normal but eosinophil count was 2900/mm3 and Ig E > 10,000 IU/ml. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME: He responded initially to high dose steroid therapy but deteriorated subsequently from extensive mucus plugging of the bronchial tree which resulted in respiratory failure and death. He was hiv-negative. CONCLUSION: culture and histologic examination of bronchoscopically identified tracheobronchial mucus plugs should be performed as early treatment may be life-saving.
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8/128. Mechanical airway obstruction caused by accidental aspiration of part of a ballpoint pen.

    The authors present three cases of death in children aged 4, 9, and 10 years, respectively, that were first thought to be caused by herbal or other poisonings but at autopsy were found to be caused by airway obstruction from aspiration of ballpoint pen parts. Aspiration of a foreign body is a leading cause of accidental death in children, but the circumstances in these cases were unique. In the first case, a 4-year-old child died shortly after a visit to a traditional healer. The child's mother blamed him for the death and fatally assaulted him. The second case was a 9-year-old who died at school. Case 3 was a 10-year-old who collapsed while playing with a ballpoint pen in her mouth. In the latter two cases, the relatives alleged poisoning. At autopsy, there was no evidence of trauma, disease, or poisoning in all three cases. Ballpoint pen parts were present in the larynx, carina, and left main bronchus, respectively. Features of "asphyxial" death were present, and included subconjunctival hemorrhages, subendocardial hemorrhages, and congestion of the face and internal organs. These deaths are preventable by education of children, parents, and teachers. Ballpoint pen manufacturers should also modify the design of these pens to improve their safety.
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9/128. Rattlesnake envenomations: unusual case presentations.

    Rattlesnake envenomations are common in some areas of the united states. Although fatal rattlesnake envenomations are rare and usually preventable, morbidity may be significant. patients may present with localized edema, hypotension, coagulopathy, or thrombocytopenia. patients with progressive swelling or severe coagulopathy are typically treated with Crotalidae polyvalent antivenin. We present a series of 4 patients with unusual complications of rattlesnake envenomation to illustrate the wide spectrum of disease that may be encountered. These case presentations include anaphylaxis to rattlesnake venom, an acute airway emergency, progressive and marked edema with a large pleural fluid collection, and death.
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10/128. Coprophagic cafe coronary.

    A 74-year-old man who had been institutionalized for severe multiinfarct dementia was found dead in bed. He had a history of compulsive ingestion of food and other materials, including feces. At autopsy, a 65-g bolus of fecal material was impacted within the laryngopharynx, occluding the inlet of the larynx. This case demonstrates an unusual coprophagic variant of cafe coronary syndrome and emphasizes that demented individuals with pica are at risk of sudden death from ingestion of a wide variety of materials, including, but not limited to, food.
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