Cases reported "Airway Obstruction"

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1/28. The outcome after perinatal management of infants with potential airway obstruction.

    Masses in the head and neck are being detected prenatally with increasing frequency, necessitating the need for management of potential upper airway obstruction at delivery. Establishment of the airway at delivery and its maintenance thereafter are critical. This should optimally be performed with the baby still attached to the placental circulation. The importance of multidisciplinary team management, including a high risk obstetrician, neonatologist, pediatric otolaryngologist, pediatric thoracic surgeon, and an anesthetist, cannot be overemphasized. Endotracheal intubation is attempted first, if unsuccessful then is followed by insertion of a rigid bronchoscope. tracheotomy should be reserved for airway obstructions, which are not amenable to endotracheal intubation or in babies in whom exchange from a bronchoscope to endotracheal tube cannot be safely performed. The management of six infants with prenatally diagnosed potential airway obstruction is presented. morbidity and mortality still ultimately depend on the severity of the existent anomalies.
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2/28. Left upper lobe bronchus reimplantation for nonpenetrating thoracic trauma.

    Trauma to the tracheobronchial tree has been diagnosed and treated with increasing frequency over the last several decades. However, most reports have dealt with management of injuries to the trachea and main stem bronchi, as approximately 80% of blunt tracheobronchial injuries occur within this area. With few exceptions, injury to the lobar bronchi has resulted in thoracotomy and lobectomy. We describe a patient with an injury to the left upper lobe bronchus who presented with delayed obstruction of the airway by fibrogranulation tissue. A successful segmental resection of the bronchial occlusion with reimplantation was performed, thereby preserving the patient's otherwise normal left upper lobe. This case demonstrates that resection and reimplantation of an injured lobar bronchus are feasible, even in a delayed setting.
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3/28. Obstructive airway disease caused by moraxella catarrhalis after renal transplantation.

    We report a case of severe acute obstructive airway disease 2 months after renal transplantation in a 16-year-old patient with Biedl-Bardet syndrome who was transplanted for end-stage renal failure secondary to cystic kidney disease. Symptoms of severe obstructive airway disease developed 2 months after transplantation under immunosuppression with prednisone, azathioprine, and tacrolimus. The patient did not develop signs of infection; progressive shortness of breath remained the only symptom for several weeks. After extensive diagnostic evaluation, bronchoalveolar lavage revealed moraxella catarrhalis as the single infectious agent. After 3 weeks of appropriate antibiotic therapy, symptoms of obstructive airway disease were completely relieved. This atypical presentation of moraxella infection in an immunocompromised host represents a rare complication of renal transplantation, especially in young patients. Special aspects such as frequency, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and management of this rare complication of renal transplantation in a pediatric patient are discussed.
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4/28. Multidisciplinary airway stent team: a comprehensive approach and protocol for tracheobronchial stent treatment.

    Tracheobronchial stents are being used with increasing frequency to treat major airway obstruction from both malignant and benign processes. Traditionally, stents have been placed via rigid bronchoscopy, flexible bronchoscopy, or fluoroscopy by members of various individual disciplines. We describe a novel multidisciplinary airway stent team (MAST) protocol for tracheobronchial stent placement and endoscopic management of major airway obstruction. A patient with symptoms of airway obstruction is generally first evaluated with a computed tomography scan and a videotaped flexible bronchoscopy. These studies are reviewed by the team otolaryngologist, pulmonologist, and interventional radiologist. A treatment plan, including the type and location of stents and the need for adjuvant therapies, is formulated. Stent placement is performed in the operating room under general anesthesia. Rigid bronchoscopy, with flexible bronchoscopy and fluoroscopy as needed, allows precise stent placement and the best use of various therapeutic methods. The MAST protocol combines the skills, knowledge, and unique therapeutic options of specialists from otolaryngology, pulmonology, and interventional radiology. This approach allows optimal stent placement and the use of other endobronchial therapies, including laser ablation, balloon dilation, photodynamic therapy, cryotherapy, and brachytherapy. A protocol with representative case reports is presented, along with a review and comparison of several of our most commonly used stents. Otolaryngologists who practice bronchoesophagoscopy, by virtue of their operative skill and knowledge of airway management, are well equipped to become leaders of MASTs and are encouraged to initiate MASTs at their institutions.
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5/28. Atypical expiratory flow volume curve in an asthmatic patient with vocal cord dysfunction.

    BACKGROUND: vocal cord dysfunction can coexist with or masquerade as asthma. vocal cord dysfunction, when coexistent with asthma, contributes substantially to the refractory nature of the respiratory problem. OBJECTIVE: To report a case of an asthmatic patient with vocal cord dysfunction and a previously unreported unique expiratory flow volume curve. RESULTS: A 16-year-old female, known to have asthma, developed increased frequency of her asthma exacerbations. spirometry, during symptoms, showed an extrathoracic airway obstruction with a reproducible unique abrupt drop and rise in the expiratory flow volume loop. laryngoscopy showed adduction of the vocal cords during inspiration and expiration. CONCLUSIONS: We report a unique expiratory flow volume curve in an asthmatic with vocal cord dysfunction that resolved with panting maneuvers. speech and psychological counseling helped prevent future attacks.
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6/28. meige syndrome secondary to basal ganglia injury: a potential cause of acute respiratory distress.

    BACKGROUND: meige syndrome is a movement disorder that includes blepharospasm and oromandibular dystonias. Its etiology may be idiopathic (primary) or it may arise secondary to focal brain injury. Acute respiratory distress as a feature of such dystonias occurs infrequently. A review of the literature on meige syndrome and the relationship between dystonias and respiratory compromise is presented. methods: A 60-year-old woman suffered a cerebral anoxic event secondary to manual strangulation. She developed progressive blepharospasm combined with oromandibular and cervical dystonias. neuroimaging demonstrated bilateral damage localized to the globus pallidus. Years later, she presented to the emergency department in intermittent respiratory distress associated with facial and cervical muscle spasms. RESULTS: Increasing frequency and severity of the disorder was noted over years. The acute onset of respiratory involvement required intubation and eventual tracheotomy. A partial therapeutic benefit of tetrabenazine was demonstrated. CONCLUSION: This case highlights two interesting aspects of Meige's syndrome: (1) Focal bilateral basal ganglia lesions appear to be responsible for this patient's movement disorder which is consistent with relative overactivity of the direct pathway from striatum to globus pallidus internal and substantia nigra pars reticularis; (2) Respiratory involvement in a primarily craniofacial dystonia to the point of acute airway compromise.
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7/28. 'Slide whistle' breath sounds: acoustical correlates of variable tracheal obstruction.

    We report a case of a man who developed severe shortness of breath and the finding of breath sounds that rose in frequency during inspiration and fell during expiration. These unusual sounds were caused by a spherical tumour arising from the main carina that nearly completely obstructed the distal trachea. The frequency variation disappeared after the removal of the mass. We evaluated this phenomenon using a modelling technique that we had previously developed to analyse the human airways as acoustical tubes. This analysis revealed that the acoustical conditions in the trachea were substantially modified by the presence of the solid mass as the trachea slightly dilated during inspiration, partially relieving the obstruction. Most of the anomalous characteristics of the breath sounds could be explained using this model. We conclude that a detailed understanding of the acoustic conditions of the airways allows correlation with anatomical and physiological conditions and may be of use in diagnosis or evaluation of the airways in health and disease.
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8/28. Spontaneous breathing combined with high frequency ventilation during bronchoscopic resection of a large tracheal tumour.

    A patient with learning difficulties had a large tracheal tumour at the carina that caused severe respiratory distress. I.v. anaesthesia with propofol, spontaneous breathing through a tracheal tube, and high frequency jet ventilation were successfully employed during bronchoscopic resection of the tumour.
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keywords = high frequency, frequency
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9/28. Laryngospasm during transtracheal high frequency jet ventilation.

    A 74-year-old woman developed severe cardiovascular depression during percutaneous transtracheal high frequency jet ventilation for laser surgery of the epiglottis. This was found to be caused by acute airway obstruction secondary to severe laryngospasm. We recommend profound neuromuscular blockade during percutaneous transtracheal jet ventilation, in order to prevent this complication.
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ranking = 556.86005880193
keywords = high frequency, frequency
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10/28. Functional upper airway obstruction. Psychogenic pharyngeal constriction.

    A 15-year-old boy, known to have asthma, developed acute inspiratory airway obstruction with marked stridor. spirometry indicated extrathoracic airway obstruction and a bronchofiberoptic examination disclosed narrowing in the hypopharynx. After administration of sedatives, the stridor suddenly disappeared. psychotherapy decreased the frequency of subsequent stridor attacks. It is suggested that psychogenic pharyngeal constriction may have caused the upper airway obstruction with respiratory distress.
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