Cases reported "Airway Obstruction"

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1/33. infectious mononucleosis and bilateral peritonsillar abscesses resulting in airway obstruction.

    Upper airway obstruction is an uncommon but recognized complication of infectious mononucleosis. The management depends upon the degree of airway compromise. In the case described, severe airway obstruction was treated by securing the airway with awake fibre-optic endoscopic intubation and then proceeding to tonsillectomy. Bilateral inferiorly loculated quinsies were encountered unexpectedly and drained. This is the first report of 'bilateral' quinsies, associated with infectious mononucleosis and severe airway obstruction. The association, pathogenesis and significance of this finding are also discussed.
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ranking = 1
keywords = infectious mononucleosis, mononucleosis
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2/33. Isolated endobronchial atypical mycobacterium in a child: a case report and review of the literature.

    Isolated endobronchial lesions caused by mycobacterium avium are rare, especially in the pediatric population. We share the case of a 10-month-old boy who, after 1 week of cough and low-grade fever, had a radiographic examination showing endobronchial obstruction. At bronchoscopy, a granuloma of the left bronchus intermedius was found. Histopathologic examination revealed necrotizing granulomatous inflammation. Kinyoun Acid Fast stain revealed acid fast bacilli. Cultures were positive for M. avium. Current treatment options and controversies are presented. The roles of antibiotics and steroids in preventing progressive disease are discussed. The need for serial bronchoscopy and the potential benefits of surgical resection are discussed. Isolated endobronchial M. avium infection remains a rare and challenging problem. The paucity of clinical experience, and variation in patient presentation, obligates a high index of suspicion, and frequent follow-up with bronchoscopic examination and pulmonary assessment, for the child diagnosed with isolated endobronchial atypical mycobacterial infection.
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ranking = 2.6748755806374E-5
keywords = fever
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3/33. life-threatening complications of infectious mononucleosis.

    infectious mononucleosis is a common febrile disorder of children and young adults which is generally benign and self-limited. patients with this disorder, however, may develop life-threatening complications which require prompt recognition and treatment. The clinical features of three such cases are presented and pertinent features of other life-threatening complications are reviewed.
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ranking = 1.5284159863429
keywords = infectious mononucleosis, mononucleosis
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4/33. Atelectasis and mucus plugging in spinal cord injury: case report and therapeutic approaches.

    INTRODUCTION: The leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the spinal cord injury (SCI) population are airway mucus plugging and atelectasis. OBJECTIVE: To illustrate the risks of pulmonary disease in individuals with SCI, and present effective therapeutic interventions. DESIGN: Case study of a 60-year-old veteran with T7 asia A spinal cord injury, who presented with a complete collapse of the left lung. FINDINGS: This patient developed fever, sepsis, and acute renal failure following colonoscopy. Following nephrostomy to remove a calculus, chest x-ray revealed complete collapse of the left lung. Despite the severe degree of atelectasis, he exhibited only mild respiratory distress. Aggressive treatment including chest physiotherapy techniques and pharmacologic intervention (acetylcysteine; bronchodilators) resulted in significant radiographic and clinical improvement. After his return to the SCI unit, his respiratory function was monitored, and assisted cough techniques were continued. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with SCI have high risk of pulmonary complications. Because of neurological deficits, the usual signs and symptoms may not be apparent. Optimal management depends upon awareness of the risks, and a thorough understanding of the pathophysiology of mucus plugging and atelectasis and the alterations in pulmonary mechanics (dependent on level of injury).
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ranking = 2.6748755806374E-5
keywords = fever
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5/33. Unexpected death due to infectious mononucleosis.

    A 14-year-old boy with infectious mononucleosis died unexpectedly in hospital. The most significant finding at autopsy was the presence of marked bilateral tonsillar enlargement with considerable narrowing of the upper airway. There were no other underlying organic diseases that could have caused or contributed to death. Narcotic analgesia had been administered less than 2 h before death and may have contributed to respiratory compromise. The blood morphine level was 0.08 mg/L. Toxicological evaluation of individuals with obstructive lesions of the upper airway may, therefore, be a useful adjunct to the autopsy assessment of such cases as it may reveal factors exacerbating mechanical blockage.
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ranking = 1.8263085519184
keywords = infectious mononucleosis, mononucleosis
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6/33. Florid infectious mononucleosis: clinicopathological correlation in acute tonsillectomy.

    In patients with infectious mononucleosis (IM), acute tonsillectomy is advocated only in the minority who develop severe airway compromise. In such florid cases, the pathological diagnosis of IM, well known to morphologically simulate that of lymphoma, is particularly challenging. The present case describes a 15-year old male with a clinical course consistent with IM in whom acute tonsillectomy was performed due to progressive airway obstruction. The striking histological findings emphasize the need for close clinicopathological correlation. Recently available ancillary studies are described which both surgeon and pathologist should be familiar with in the differentiation of IM from other lymphoproliferative conditions.
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ranking = 1.8263085519184
keywords = infectious mononucleosis, mononucleosis
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7/33. A case of relapsing polychondritis involving placement of an expandable metallic stent.

    Relapsing polychondritis is a relatively uncommon disease characterized by recurrence of progressive inflammation of cartilaginous structures. Laryngotracheal involvement occurs in 50-70% of cases, and occasionally results in acute airway obstruction. We reported a case of relapsing polychondritis with severe tracheal stenosis that was treated by the placement of two expandable metallic stents. A 58-year-old man was hospitalized with fever and breathing difficulties. A tracheostomy was performed and a silicone T-tube was placed. A diagnosis of relapsing polychondritis was made based on the biopsy from auricular and tracheal cartilages. Two expandable metallic stents were placed in the trachea to bilateral main bronchus. This dilated the airway lumen and resulted in the dyspnea disappearing completely. However, 18 months later a sudden massive hemorrhage occurred through the tracheostoma, and he died of respiratory failure. autopsy showed a tracheoinnominate artery fistula. We discuss the management of relapsing polychondritis with severe tracheal stenosis.
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ranking = 2.6748755806374E-5
keywords = fever
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8/33. life threatening complications caused by bronchogenic and oesophageal duplication cysts in a child.

    An 11-year-old girl presented with severe respiratory distress, fever and septic manifestations. Computed tomography scan (CT) of the chest showed 2 separate superior and posterior mediastinal cysts, the upper one causing severe extrinsic compression of the trachea, and the oesophagus, while the lower cyst was at the subcarinal region compressing the 2 major bronchi. Emergency thoracotomy was performed permitting complete resection of intra-mural oesophageal enteric cyst, and a subcarinal bronchogenic cyst. The postoperative course was uneventful.
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ranking = 2.6748755806374E-5
keywords = fever
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9/33. infectious mononucleosis presenting as upper airway obstruction.

    Upper airway obstruction though a common complication of infectious mononucleosis is rarely considered in differential diagnosis of stridor. We report a three-year-old child who had upper airway obstruction due to infectious mononucleosis, managed conservatively with oxygen, intravenous fluids and steroids.
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ranking = 1
keywords = infectious mononucleosis, mononucleosis
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10/33. Massive retropharyngeal lymphadenopathy in an infant: an unusual presentation of infectious mononucleosis.

    infectious mononucleosis causing upper airway obstruction due to tonsillar disease and associated lymphadenopathy in adolescents is well recognized. However, infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in a young child of six months is rare. The authors present such a case, with massive swelling of the retropharyngeal lymph nodes, that has not been published previously. The patient presented to this department with a short history of an upper respiratory tract infection and mild upper airway obstruction. On examination there was a massive enlargement of the retropharyngeal space with a compromised airway. This was confirmed on X-ray. She made an uneventful recovery following incision and drainage and a short period of endotracheal intubation. Because of the presence of retropharyngeal lymphoid tissue in infancy an alternative site of upper airway obstruction may occur here in this age group.
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ranking = 1.5284159863429
keywords = infectious mononucleosis, mononucleosis
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