Cases reported "Airway Obstruction"

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1/209. Postoperative pulmonary edema.

    BACKGROUND: Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema may be caused by upper airway obstruction due to laryngospasm after general anesthesia. This syndrome of "negative pressure pulmonary edema" is apparently well known among anesthesiologists but not by other medical specialists. methods: We reviewed the cases of seven patients who had acute pulmonary edema postoperatively. RESULTS: There was no evidence of fluid overload or occult cardiac disease, but upper airway obstruction was the most common etiology. Each patient responded quickly to therapy without complications. CONCLUSIONS: Of the seven patients with noncardiogenic postoperative pulmonary edema, at least three cases were associated with documented laryngospasm causing upper airway obstruction. This phenomenon has been reported infrequently in the medical literature and may be underdiagnosed. Immediate recognition and treatment of this syndrome are important. The prognosis for complete recovery is excellent.
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2/209. Early postoperative esophageal obstruction caused by enteral feeding concretions in patients who have undergone laryngectomy.

    We report two cases of tube-feeding concretions causing esophageal obstruction in patients after laryngectomy. The cause of tube-feeding concretions is unknown at this time but probably involves esophageal stasis caused by esophageal dysmotility, protein precipitation by acidic gastric contents, tube damage, and concomitant use of sucralfate and other antacids. Although this is a rare complication of nasogastric feedings, the diagnosis should be entertained in cases in which postoperative esophageal obstruction is noted in head and neck surgical patients.
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3/209. Anesthetic considerations of two sisters with beckwith-wiedemann syndrome.

    Anesthetic considerations of 21-mo-old and 4-yr-old sisters with beckwith-wiedemann syndrome during surgical repair of cleft palate and reduction of macroglossia are presented and discussed. This syndrome is characterized by exomphalos, macroglossia, gigantism, hypoglycemia in infancy, and many other clinical features. This syndrome is also known as exomphalos, macroglossia, and gigantism (EMG) syndrome. Principal problems associated with anesthetic management in this syndrome are hypoglycemia and macroglossia. Careful intraoperative plasma glucose monitoring is particularly important to prevent the neurologic sequelae of unrecognized hypoglycemia. It is expected that airway management would be complicated by the macroglossia, which might cause difficult bag/mask ventilation and endotracheal intubation following the induction of anesthesia and muscle paralysis, so preparations for airway difficulty (e.g., awake vocal cord inspection) should be considered before induction. A nasopharyngeal airway is useful in relieving postoperative airway obstruction.
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4/209. Anterior mediastinal masses: an anaesthetic challenge.

    A patient with a large anterior mediastinal mass with minimal respiratory symptoms presented for a diagnostic biopsy of the mass. A pre-operative thoracic computed tomographic scan demonstrated narrowing of the distal trachea, and right and left main stem bronchi. An awake intubation was done. Thiopentone and muscle relaxant were given and surgery commenced. High airway pressure developed and ventilation became difficult, although oxygenation remained satisfactory throughout. Anaesthetic implications are discussed. We recommend that patients with more than 50% obstruction of the airway at the level of the lower trachea and main bronchi have their femoral vessels cannulated in readiness for cardiopulmonary bypass.
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5/209. Severe postoperative laryngeal oedema causing total airway obstruction immediately on extubation.

    We report a case of total upper airway obstruction occurring immediately after extubation after elective bi-maxillary osteotomy. The obstruction was caused by severe, progressive supraglottic oedema, which totally obscured the laryngeal inlet. No swelling had been present at initial laryngoscopy and intubation. Immediate re-intubation of the patient's trachea was difficult but life saving. Subsequent investigations revealed extensive soft tissue swelling, maximal at the level of the hyoid and extending downwards into the trachea. The cause of such severe oedema in this case is not certain, but may be related to vigorous submental liposuction carried out at the end of operation. We have found no other reports of total airway obstruction occurring immediately after extubation as a result of this cause. We review the appropriate literature, describe the postoperative management and suggest precautions in similar patients.
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6/209. Postlaryngospasm pulmonary edema in adults.

    Laryngospasm is a potential serious complication of intubation. pulmonary edema can develop after laryngospasm and can affect any patient who has been intubated. Postlaryngospasm pulmonary edema is potentially life threatening and can result in reintubation, mechanical ventilation, admission to an intensive care unit, and a prolonged hospitalization for the patient. Perioperative nurses play a significant role in the prompt detection, diagnosis, and treatment of this syndrome.
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7/209. airway obstruction due to late-onset angioneurotic edema from angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition.

    PURPOSE: Angioneurotic edema is a well-documented complication of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI). We report a case of acute airway obstruction from a late-onset, probable ACEI-related angioneurotic edema and its subsequent management. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 48-yr-old obese man presented for transurethral resection of a bladder tumour (TURBT). His past medical history included hypertension controlled with hydrochlorothiazide and quinapril which had been started 13 mo earlier. Previous surgery was uncomplicated. midazolam was used for premedication and for intraoperative sedation together with fentanyl and propofol. After uneventful spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine, operation and recovery, he was transferred to the floor. Five hours later he developed severe edema of his face, tongue and neck, with drooling, that progressed into airway obstruction and respiratory arrest. ventilation was restored via immediate cricothyroidotomy, and a subsequent tracheotomy was completed uneventfully in the operating room. His serum C1 esterase inhibitor levels at 1, 5 and 23 days later were normal. The angioneurotic edema was attributed to the ACEI treatment. The edema resolved after 48 hr, and further follow-up was unremarkable. CONCLUSION: This observation is consistent with other reports that angioneurotic edema from ACEI can occur many months after the initiation of treatment. This can involve the airway and may produce life-threatening respiratory compromise. physicians should be aware of this association and the possible need for immediate surgical intervention for the establishment of an airway in case of worsening edema or respiratory arrest.
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8/209. Recurrent pregnancy-related upper airway obstruction caused by intratracheal ectopic thyroid tissue.

    An unusual case of recurrent pregnancy-related thyroid growth stimulation is reported. A 27-year-old euthyroid woman had pulmonary symptoms, thought to be asthma during her first pregnancy, that improved postpartum. Bronchodilatators had no effect and symptoms recurred from gestational week 22 during her second pregnancy. Her 58-mL multinodular goiter (by ultrasound) was not thought to be responsible for her upper airway symptoms. Therefore, fiber laryngoscopy and computed tomographic (CT) scan were performed and revealed a 20 x 15 x 10 mm intratracheal tumor. After tracheostomy and microlaryngoscopy, benign goitrous thyroid tissue was removed through a tracheal fissure during gestational week 35. Postoperatively the patient had stopped medication and was without any pulmonary symptoms. The child was delivered by cesarean section in gestational week 39. apgar score was normal and the child has developed normally. We believe that this case illustrates the recurrent effect of pregnancy-related thyroid tissue stimulation by a combination of increasing human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulation and iodine deficiency in a borderline iodine-deficient region. This is the first report on symptomatic intratracheal ectopic thyroid tissue diagnosed during pregnancy.
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9/209. A novel interventional therapy using the combination of bilateral bronchial stent dilatation and percutaneous cardiopulmonary support for critical airway obstruction due to metastatic carcinomatous carina.

    For an inoperative critical airway obstruction (bilateral bronchial stenoses) from a carcinomatous carina due to the mediastinal lymphnodal metastasis from uterine cancer, we succeeded in improving the patient's severe dyspnea by the combination of bilateral bronchial stent dilatation and a percutaneous cardiopulmonary support (PCPS) system. The imminent airway stenosis with severe dyspnea may have a high risk of asphyxia and contact-flooding during implanting of the stent. By the novel use of PCPS in advance for blood-oxygenation as a respiratory support, we could safely perform the interventional therapy of bronchial expandable metallic stents, and the patient obtained a good quality of life without dyspnea until she died of systemic metastatic cachexia. This technique may possibly be approved as an option for temporary remission therapy of a critical airway obstruction.
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10/209. Functional airway obstruction mimicking tongue angioedema.

    BACKGROUND: Functional causes of upper airway obstruction have focused primarily on psychogenic stridor associated with paradoxical vocal cord dysfunction. angioedema can involve upper airway structures and be life-threatening. CASE REPORT: We report a 12-year-old female with upper airway obstruction from posterior tongue swelling which was determined to be a conversion reaction. methods & RESULTS: A lateral neck film revealed severe tongue swelling. Examination revealed a calm, cooperative patient in no distress but exhibiting inspiratory and expiratory stridor. A computed tomography scan revealed soft tissue fullness at the base of the tongue without associated lymphadenopathy. Laboratory evaluation was normal. With anesthetic induction in the operating room, there was complete relaxation of the upper airway with no evidence of tongue swelling, mass, or other abnormality. Following tongue biopsy, she had no reoccurrence of the tongue mass. CONCLUSION: This case represents a childhood conversion reaction of functional airway obstruction where tongue manipulation simulated tongue swelling radiographically consistent with angioedema.
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