Cases reported "Alcoholic Intoxication"

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1/4. Sevoflurane mask anesthesia for urgent tracheostomy in an uncooperative trauma patient with a difficult airway.

    PURPOSE: Proper care of the trauma patient often includes tracheal intubation to insure adequate ventilation and oxygenation, protect the airway from aspiration, and facilitate surgery. airway management can be particularly complex when there are facial bone fractures, head injury and cervical spine instability. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 29-yr-old intoxicated woman suffered a motor vehicle accident. Injuries consisted of multiple abrasions to her head, forehead, and face, right temporal lobe hemorrhage, and complex mandibular fractures with displacement. mouth opening was <10 mm. blood pressure was 106/71 mm Hg, pulse 109, respirations 18, temperature 37.3 degrees C, SpO2 100%. Chest and pelvic radiographs were normal and the there was increased anterior angulation of C4-C5 on the cervical spine film. Drug screen was positive for cocaine and alcohol. The initial plan was to perform awake tracheostomy with local anesthesia. However, the patient was uncooperative despite sedation and infiltration of local anesthesia. Sevoflurane, 1%, inspired in oxygen 100%, was administered via face mask. The concentration of sevoflurane was gradually increased to 4%, and loss of consciousness occurred within one minute. The patient breathed spontaneously and required gentle chin lift and jaw thrust. A cuffed tracheostomy tube was surgically inserted without complication. Blood gas showed pH 7.40, PCO2 35 mm Hg, PO2 396 mm Hg, hematocrit 33.6%. Diagnostic peritoneal lavage was negative. Pulmonary aspiration did not occur. Oxygenation and ventilation were maintained throughout the procedure. CONCLUSION: Continuous mask ventilation with sevoflurane is an appropriate technique when confronted with an uncooperative trauma patient with a difficult airway.
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2/4. Bialaphos poisoning with apnea and metabolic acidosis.

    A 64-year-old man with ethanol intoxication, ingested a bottle of Herbiace (100 ml, 32 w/v% of bialaphos, CAS #35597-43-4, Meiji Seika Kaisha, tokyo, japan). He had severe metabolic acidosis and was treated with infusions of sodium bicarbonate and furosemide, plus gastric lavage and enema. The metabolic acidosis improved 15 hours after treatment but nystagmus, apnea and convulsions were progressive. Although his sensorium was clear, spontaneous respirations were not observed for 64 hours. The electroencephalographic findings of atypical triphasic waves and slow waves suggest a unique response to bialaphos poisoning. His clinical course indicates that the management of apnea is critically important to recovery from bialaphos poisoning.
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3/4. shock due to profound hypothermia and alcohol ingestion: report of two cases.

    Cardiovascular failure (shock) associated with acute alcohol ingestion and severe hypothermia (core temperature 23 and 21 degrees C) was studied in 2 patients. In each case, perfusion failure was associated with lactacidemia, severe bradycardia, and agonal respirations. Infusion of fluids and mechanical ventilation reversed shock and prevented a fatal outcome. One case, complicated by renal failure and volume overload with pulmonary edema, was managed with peritoneal dialysis. These findings suggest that perfusion failure associated with severe accidental hypothermia after acute alcohol ingestion is due to a combination of hypovolemia, bradycardia, and respiratory depression.
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4/4. Alcoholic ketoacidosis presenting with extreme hypoglycemia.

    A 66-year-old man with a history of chronic alcoholism presented with Kussmaul respirations following several days of fasting accompanied by vomiting, in the presence of continued ethanol intake. He was subsequently found to have a serum glucose level of <20 mg/dL and an anion gap of 36. Despite his profound hypoglycemia, he was fully alert with no obvious neurological deficits. He recovered without incident with intravenous saline, dextrose, thiamine, and antibiotics for a bacteremic pneumonia. He had no evidence of hypoxemia, hypotension, or other features of sepsis. Alcoholic ketoacidosis in the setting of hypoglycemia is discussed. If the serum glucose level is less than the anion gap, the diagnosis of alcoholic ketoacidosis should be considered.
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