Cases reported "Alkalosis"

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1/7. Severe hypomagnesaemia-induced hypocalcaemia in a patient with Gitelman's syndrome.

    Gitelman's syndrome (GS) is characterized by hyperreninaemic hyperaldosteronism, hypokalaemia, metabolic alkalosis, hypomagnesaemia and hypocalciuria and is due to a defect of the Na-Cl cotransporter at the distal tubule, which may appear in a sporadic or in a familial form. It is an autosomal recessive disorder associated with normal or reduced blood pressure. We report a case of severe hypomagnesaemia-induced hypocalcaemia in a 39-year-old Caucasian woman with GS. The patient had impaired parathormone (PTH) responsiveness to peripheral stimuli, as proved by the marked PTH increase and normalization of plasma calcium levels after acute and chronic administration of magnesium salts. Secondary normotensive hyperreninaemic hyperaldosteronism with hypokalaemia and metabolic alkalosis was also present. Normal plasma renin activity (PRA) and aldosterone levels were restored by administration of an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis. The electrolyte imbalance was successfully corrected with chronic treatment with magnesium and potassium salts. Genetic analysis identified a compound heterozygous mutation in the Na-Cl cotransporter gene (NCCT), confirming the diagnosis of GS. The striking feature of this case of GS was impaired PTH responsiveness to peripheral stimuli determined by hypomagnesaemia and the resulting severe hypocalcaemia, which had not previously been described in this syndrome.
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2/7. Renal sodium handling study in an atypical case of Bartter's syndrome associated with mitochondriopathy and sensorineural blindness.

    Bartter's syndrome is a disorder that has been linked to mutations in one of three ion transporter proteins: NKCC2 (type I), ROMK (type II) and CCLNKB (type III), which affects a final common pathway that participates in ion transport by thick ascending limb cells. We present an atypical case of mitochondriopathy combined with tubule functional disturbances compatible with Bartter's syndrome and definitive sensorineural blindness. Our patient had a peculiar clinical presentation with signs of salt and volume depletion, low blood pressure and secondary hyperaldosteronism, associated with hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, hypocalcemia and severe hypomagnesemia, uncommon in genetic forms of Bartter's syndrome. The enhanced absolute and fractional sodium excretion in our patient compared to volunteers was accompanied by increased post-proximal sodium rejection, suggesting a striking ion transport dysfunction in these nephron segments. These findings lead to the Bartter's syndrome diagnosis, accompanied by a suppose mitochondrial tick ascending loop of henle epithelium dysfunction that may reflect the high energy supplied by mitochondria electron transport chain, required for this nephron segment to maintain normal ion transport.
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3/7. A novel mutation of the thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter gene in a Japanese family with gitelman syndrome.

    gitelman syndrome is an inherited renal disorder characterized by impaired NaCl reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubule leading to hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia and normocalcemic hypocalciuria. It has been shown that this syndrome results from mutations in the gene encoding the thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (TSC). We performed the mutational analysis in the TSC gene of a 30-year-old Japanese woman with gitelman syndrome and found two mutations at adjacent spots in both alleles. One was a frame shift mutation which generated stop codon at position 671, the other was a single nucleotide mutation, which resulted in an aminoacid substitution at position 672, Met to Ile. Her 52-year-old mother and two daughters had neither hypokalemia nor hypomagnesemia. However, her mother and her 8-year-old daughter had the Met672Ile mutation as heterozygotes. Her 4-year-old daughter had the same frame shift mutation as her mother, a heterozygotic mutation. These results suggest that gitelman syndrome requires 2 compound heterozygotic mutations and the coexistence of the large deletion in the C-terminal domain with Met672Ile substitution of the TSC could impair the transporter activity underling the hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia in this patient.
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4/7. Pseudo-bartter syndrome in a pregnant mother and her fetus.

    Pseudo-bartter syndrome presents the same clinical and biological characteristics as bartter syndrome but without primary renal tubule abnormalities. We relate the case of a premature baby presenting at birth with severe hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis associated with hyponatremia and hypochloremia. Maternal blood at the time of delivery showed the same electrolyte perturbations. The baby's mother had suffered from anorexia and vomiting during pregnancy. A few weeks after birth the baby's blood abnormalities had almost returned to normal. Chloride depletion is at the origin of both maternal and fetal hypokalemic alkalosis.
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5/7. Possible discrimination of Gitelman's syndrome from Bartter's syndrome by renal clearance study: report of two cases.

    We observed two patients who had hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis as well as hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria with elevated serum renin levels. In renal clearance studies in our patients using furosemide or thiazide, urine volume and chloride clearance (CCI) were increased after furosemide administration but not after thiazide administration. Furthermore, the distal fractional chloride reabsorption [CH2O/(CH2O CCI)] was dramatically decreased by furosemide administration in our patients, whereas thiazide had little effect on it, suggesting the presence of a defect in the distal tubule rather than in the thick ascending loop of henle. These findings are compatible with the concept of Gitelman's syndrome, a variant form of Bartter's syndrome.
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6/7. Hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis with hypomagnesuric hypermagnesemia and severe hypocalciuria: a new syndrome?

    Bartter's and Gitelman's syndromes are characterized by hypokalemia, urinary potassium wasting, elevated plasma renin activity and aldosterone levels, normotension, and prostaglandinuria. They differ in that hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria are universal in Gitelman's syndrome; 20% of cases of Bartter's syndrome have hypomagnesemia and hypercalciuria. We present a 44-year-old white man referred for hypokalemia. Clinical evaluation was unremarkable. He had hypokalemia (P(K), 2.8 to 3.0 mEq/L), hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, mild azotemia (serum creatinine, 1.4 to 1.8 mg/dL; creatinine clearance, 59 mL/min), normocalcemia, marked persistent hypocalciuria (FE(Ca), 0.08% to 0.09%), and normal intact parathyroid hormone levels (51 pg/mL) and glucosuria. He had persistent hypermagnesemia (P(Mg), 2.1 to 2.8 mEq/L) with relative hypomagnesuria (FE(Mg), 3.2% to 5.2%) given the level of renal impairment and hypermagnesemia. Supine plasma renin activity and aldosterone levels were high (11 ng/mL/hr and 43 ng/dL, respectively). An excessive dietary intake of magnesium, including medications, was excluded. Studies were performed after withdrawing all medications for 8 days. A maximum water diuresis was established (an oral load of 20 mL/kg; stable Uosm, 120 mOsm/kg), and free water and solute clearances were studied at baseline and after sequential intravenous injections of 125 mg chlorothiazide and 40 mg furosemide. The patient had moderate renal impairment (technetium diethylene triamine pentacetic acid [DTPA] clearance, 35.4 mL/min/1.73 m2) and, in contradistinction to Bartter's and Gitelman's syndromes, sodium and water handling in the thick ascending limb of the loop of henle and the distal tubule (fractional distal solute reabsorption) was normal, but there was evidence of a defect in the proximal tubule reabsorption (glucosuria, supranormal C(H2O) and high distal delivery). Hypomagnesuria and hypocalciuria appeared to be secondary to an increase in their absorption in the loop of henle (increased excretion following furosemide). In conclusion, this combination of metabolic abnormalities has never been described. We postulate a proximal tubular defect in the absorption of NaCl leading to hypocalciuria, hypomagnesuria, and potassium wasting. Whether the tubular defect is primary or secondary to a renal parenchymal disease is, however, unclear.
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7/7. Concomitant occurrence of Gitelman and Bartter syndromes in the same family?

    The molecular defects responsible for the two most-common forms of inherited normotensive hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis have recently been defined. Most patients with bartter syndrome have defects in transporters in the thick ascending limb of the loop of henle, such as the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter, NKCC2, or the ATP-sensitive potassium channel, ROMK. patients with gitelman syndrome usually have mutations in the thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter in the distal convoluted tubule. The location of the affected transporters correlates well with the typical presentation of these syndromes. patients with bartter syndrome typically present with normal or increased calcium excretion. Hypomagnesemia is present in only one-third of affected individuals. In contrast, hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria are considered hallmarks of gitelman syndrome. This report describes siblings presenting as young adults with mild symptoms associated with normotensive hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis. One sibling has hypocalciuria and hypomagnesemia, consistent with gitelman syndrome. Surprisingly, the other sibling has normal serum magnesium and urinary calcium excretion. These siblings demonstrate the biochemical heterogeneity that can exist in patients with normotensive hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis. This report indicates that hypocalciuria does not always distinguish Gitelman and Bartter syndromes.
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