Cases reported "Alopecia Areata"

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1/2. Postoperative pressure-induced alopecia: report of a case and discussion of the role of apoptosis in non-scarring alopecia.

    We report a case of postoperative pressure induced alopecia in a 21-year-old black female after multiple intraoperative procedures. The histopathology is distinctive and demonstrated features in common with trichotillomania and alopecia areata, including the presence of pigment casts, catagen follicles, melanophages and apoptotic bodies. External hair manipulation is considered the primary event in the etiology of pigment casts, however, our present case demonstrated numerous pigment casts despite a complete lack of evidence of external hair manipulation. We performed pattern analysis and in situ end-labeling in 19 cases of non-scarring alopecia. Pigment casts were seen in postoperative alopecia (1 case), alopecia areata (1 case) and trichotillomania (5 cases). These forms of alopecia have in common the sudden termination of the anagen phase of the hair cycle. When the anagen portion of the hair cycle is prematurely disrupted hairs enter into catagen. Pigment casts may represent a non-specific reaction pattern of follicles that are suddenly transformed from anagen to catagen. We therefore propose that hair manipulation is not uniquely responsible for the formation of pigment casts. The primary pathophysiology resulting in the formation of pigment casts more correctly reflects the sudden termination of the anagen phase of the hair cycle.
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ranking = 1
keywords = apoptosis
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2/2. Treatment of alopecia areata with the 308-nm xenon chloride excimer laser: case report of two successful treatments with the excimer laser.

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: alopecia areata is a common disease of unknown etiology; it causes significant cosmetic and psycho-social distress for most of the people it affects. We report on an innovative form of treatment in two patients with typical alopecia areata on the capillitium. STUDY DESIGN/patients AND methods: We successfully treated two patients whose alopecia areata had worsened progressively for 3 and 14 weeks. The treatment involved the use of a 308 nm xenon chloride excimer laser (dosage 300-2,300 mJ/cm(2) per session). RESULTS: After 11 and 12 sessions within a 9-week and 11-week period, the entire affected focus showed homogenous and thick regrowth. No relapse was observed during the follow-up period of 5 and 18 months. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the excimer laser is an effective, elegant, and safe means of treatment and has good tolerability. Analogous to topical treatment of alopecia areata, the immunosuppressive mechanism of the excimer laser can be interpreted as an induction of T-cell apoptosis. This new means of treatment has yet to be discussed in medical literature. Further studies with greater numbers are needed to assess its potential more precisely and evaluate the excimer laser in treating alopecia areata.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = apoptosis
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