Cases reported "Alphavirus Infections"

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1/9. Mayaro virus disease: an emerging mosquito-borne zoonosis in tropical south america.

    This report describes the clinical, laboratory, and epidemiological findings on 27 cases of Mayaro virus (MV) disease, an emerging mosquito-borne viral illness that is endemic in rural areas of tropical south america. MV disease is a nonfatal, dengue-like illness characterized by fever, chills, headache, eye pain, generalized myalgia, arthralgia, diarrhea, vomiting, and rash of 3-5 days' duration. Severe joint pain is a prominent feature of this illness; the arthralgia sometimes persists for months and can be quite incapacitating. Cases of two visitors from the united states, who developed MV disease during visits to eastern peru, are reported. MV disease and dengue are difficult to differentiate clinically. ( info)

2/9. Barmah Forest viral exanthems.

    A series of five patients presented with eruptions beginning on the face. In each case the facial changes were characterized by urticated erythema with minimal epidermal change. The patients also demonstrated more widespread vesiculopapular, macular or purpuric eruptions. At presentation most patients were asymptomatic; however, several subsequently developed constitutional symptoms. Each of these patients was reactive for Barmah Forest virus immunoglobulin (Ig)M, and on repeat testing four were reactive for Barmah Forest virus IgG. ( info)

3/9. ross river virus disease reemergence, fiji, 2003-2004.

    We report 2 clinically characteristic and serologically positive cases of ross river virus infection in Canadian tourists who visited fiji in late 2003 and early 2004. This report suggests that ross river virus is once again circulating in fiji, where it apparently disappeared after causing an epidemic in 1979 to 1980. ( info)

4/9. Recurrent arthralgias in a patient with previous Mayaro fever infection.

    Mayaro fever is an acute, self-limited, febrile, mosquito-borne viral disease manifested by fever, chills, headache, myalgias, and arthralgias. The virus belongs to the family togaviridae and the genus alphavirus. Five other mosquito-borne viruses have been described as causing a similar dengue-like illness. The virus was first isolated in 1954, and the first epidemics were described in 1955 in brazil and bolivia. Other cases have been reported in suriname, brazil, peru, french guiana, and Trinidad. Up to 10 to 15% of febrile illnesses in endemic areas have been attributed to Mayaro virus. The exact pathogenesis and pathophysiology among humans is unknown. Animal models have demonstrated necrosis of skeletal muscle, periosteum, perichondrial tissues, and evidence of meningitis and encephalitis. All previous cases of Mayaro fever describe a self-limited illness. No reports of recurrent symptoms exist in the literature. This report describes a case of recurrent arthralgias in a military service member presenting to the emergency department. ( info)

5/9. o'nyong-nyong virus, chad.

    We report the first laboratory-confirmed human infection with o'nyong-nyong virus in chad. This virus was isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a patient with evidence of a seroconversion to a virus related to chikungunya virus. genome sequence was partly determined, and phylogenetic studies were conducted. ( info)

6/9. Chikungunya fever diagnosed among international travelers--united states, 2005-2006.

    chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus indigenous to tropical africa and asia, where it is transmitted to humans by the bite of infected mosquitoes, usually of the genus aedes. Chikungunya (CHIK) fever, the disease caused by CHIKV, was first recognized in epidemic form in East africa during 1952-1953. The word "chikungunya" is thought to derive from description in local dialect of the contorted posture of patients afflicted with the severe joint pain associated with this disease. Because CHIK fever epidemics are sustained by human-mosquito-human transmission, the epidemic cycle is similar to those of dengue and urban yellow fever. Large outbreaks of CHIK fever have been reported recently on several islands in the indian ocean and in India. In 2006, CHIK fever cases also have been reported in travelers returning from known outbreak areas to europe, canada, the Caribbean (martinique), and south america (French guyana). During 2005-2006, 12 cases of CHIK fever were diagnosed serologically and virologically at CDC in travelers who arrived in the united states from areas known to be epidemic or endemic for CHIK fever. This report describes four of these cases and provides guidance to health-care providers. Clinicians should be alert for additional cases among travelers, and public health officials should be alert to evidence of local transmission of chikungunya virus (CHIKV), introduced through infection of local mosquitoes by a person with viremia. ( info)

7/9. An eruption associated with alphavirus infection.

    Some alphaviruses, e.g. Sindbis, cause an acute febrile illness associated with papular rashes and arthralgia. The diagnosis is usually serological and, hence, the histopathology of the rashes has been poorly elucidated. We report on two patients with rapidly healing eruptions associated with sindbis virus infection. The histopathology of the rashes showed large, pronounced lymphohistiocytic infiltrates with atypical lymphoid cells around the hair follicles, changes not usually seen in rapidly-healing dermatoses. ( info)

8/9. glomerulonephritis secondary to Barmah Forest virus infection.

    Clinical infection with Barmah Forest virus (BFV) is becoming increasingly recognised with serological testing. We report the first case of glomerulonephritis after BFV infection. The patient required diuretic and antihypertensive therapy, but made an almost complete recovery. BFV infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of glomerulonephritis. ( info)

9/9. Mayaro virus fever in french guiana: isolation, identification, and seroprevalence.

    This paper reports the first isolation of Mayaro (MAY) virus from a patient infected in french guiana. The identification was initially performed using immunofluorescent antibody testing with specific mouse antibody, and confirmed by plaque-reduction neutralization testing and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. To determine if MAY virus infection is widespread in french guiana, a serosurvey was performed to determine the prevalence of antibody to this virus in various ethnic groups and areas of french guiana. Human sera (n = 1,962) were screened using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. To determine whether MAY virus circulates in the rain forest, a serosurvey in monkey populations was performed. Monkey sera (n = 150) were also screened for antibody to MAY virus using HI testing. Of the human sera tested, 6.3% were positive for anti-MAY virus antibodies. Significant differences in MAY virus seroprevalence between different age groups were observed. Seroprevalence rates increased with age, with a large increase in people 10-19 years of age in comparison with those less than 10 years of age. After adjustment for age, significant differences were also found between places of residence. The prevalence of anti-MAY virus antibody was higher in people living in contact with the forest, especially in the Haut Oyapock area (odds ratio [OR] = 97.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 48.2-197.9) and along the Maroni River (OR = 39.7, 95% CI = 20.6-76.6). The ethnic differences observed in this study were probably due to differences in residence. Among monkeys, higher seroprevalence rates were found in alouatta seniculus (66.0%) than in saguinus midas (18.2%). Among alouatta, the seroprevalence increased significantly with weight (and therefore with age). This study indicates that MAY virus is present in french guiana, and human infections occur in areas where people live near the tropical rain forest. ( info)

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