Cases reported "Alveolar Bone Loss"

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1/123. guided tissue regeneration in the management of severe periodontal-endodontic lesions.

    diagnosis of combined periodontal-endodontic lesions can prove difficult and frustrating. They are often characterised by extensive loss of periodontal attachment and alveolar bone, and their successful management depends on careful clinical evaluation, accurate diagnosis, and a structured approach to treatment planning for both the periodontic and endodontic components. Recent advances in regenerative periodontics have led to improved management of periodontal-endodontic lesions. This paper reviews the management of such lesions in light of these recent advances and illustrates this through reports of two patients who had severe periodontal involvement.
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2/123. Tomodensitometric and histologic evaluation of the combined use of a collagen membrane and a hydroxyapatite spacer for guided bone regeneration: a clinical report.

    In this report, the problems of insufficient bone and soft tissue after extraction of maxillary incisors were addressed concurrently prior to endosseous implant placement, by combining the use of a diphenylphosphorylazide-cross-linked Type I collagen membrane and a resorbable space-making biomaterial composed of 200-micron porous hydroxyapatite granules blended in Type I collagen and chondroitin-4-sulfate. Upon flap reflection 8 months postsurgery, the horizontal deficiencies were almost completely resolved, membranes completely resorbed and the defects filled with hard, bonelike tissue, with a few superficial hydroxyapatite granules. Histologic evaluation of the bone biopsies obtained at the implantation sites revealed dense, well-reconstructed alveolar bone with a few traces of hydroxyapatite granules that had been completely resorbed. Tomodensitometric evaluation indicated that bone regeneration ranged from 14% to 58%, with an average bone gain of 29.77%. Four nonsubmerged ITI titanium implants placed in the augmented bone have been in function for more than 5 years, with no clinical or radiographic signs of hard or soft tissue breakdown. Bacterial sampling at dental sites with periodontitis 1 month prior to periodontal therapy and at implant sites for up to 30 months demonstrated rapid colonization of implant surfaces by periodontopathogens without causing any detrimental effect to implant integration.
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3/123. Tissue necrosis after subgingival irrigation with fluoride solution.

    Irrigation of periodontal pockets with fluoride solution after scaling and root planing is occasionally recommended to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria in the periodontal pocket. At the same time, irrigation enables mechanical removal of loosely adhering plaque and debris. Due to its toxicity, fluoride solution deposited in the periodontium may lead to tissue damage. We report in this paper, a case of extensive periodontal tissue necrosis and permanent loss of alveolar bone after irrigation of periodontal pockets with stannous fluoride solution. The literature on the toxic effects of fluoride on the local tissues is briefly reviewed and arguments for a re-evaluation of the use of stannous fluoride for pocket irrigation are provided.
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4/123. Spacemaking metal structures for nonresorbable membranes in guided bone regeneration around implants. Two case reports.

    This article presents a surgical technique to promote bone regeneration and enlargement of localized alveolar ridge defects in the mandible. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of spacemaking gold frames used in combination with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene Gore-Tex augmentation membranes (WL Gore) on two patients to create and maintain adequate space for the regeneration of bone. The membrane was sutured under the frame and the assembly was bent and adapted over the residual bony defect to create a dome and prevent the expanded polytetrafluoroethylene barrier membranes from collapsing into the defects. The framed membranes have also been positioned over dehisced implants. After a healing period of 12 months, a second-stage surgery procedure was performed to remove the gold frames and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene membranes and to connect the healing abutments. The gain of bone dimension was assessed by standardized measurements. On both patients the spaces created by the framed membranes were completely filled with newly regenerated bone. Biopsies from the treated sites revealed new bone formation.
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5/123. Periodontal and peri-implant bone regeneration: clinical and histologic observations.

    The principle of guided tissue regeneration by barrier membranes to restore lost periodontal tissue around natural teeth has also been used around osseointegrated implants in an attempt to restore alveolar ridge defects. While most periodontal procedures in the literature describe root coverage by mucogingival surgery, which achieves healing through soft tissue attachment, regeneration of denuded root surfaces is performed by guided tissue regeneration using expanded polytetrafluoroethylene barrier membranes and demineralized freeze-dried bone allografts as inductive/conductive materials. In this study the technique is applied in two partially exposed cylindrical hydroxyapatite-coated implants in extraction sites in one patient. Surgical reentry in both sites is presented, with histologic examination revealing new bone formation on the exposed root surface and the hydroxyapatite-coated implants.
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6/123. Reconstruction of the severely atrophic maxilla in a young adult with periodontosis.

    Reconstruction of the atrophic maxilla in a young adult presents unique challenges. This article describes reconstruction in a 30-year-old patient using a two-stage procedure. Bilateral maxillary sinus augmentations with simultaneous corticocancellous grafting to the anterior maxilla and alveolar ridge were performed. Eight endosseous implant fixtures were subsequently placed into the maxilla after a five-month healing phase. Six months later the implants were uncovered, healing abutments placed and a maxillary vestibuloplasty performed. The rationale behind this treatment and a review of the literature are discussed.
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keywords = alveolar
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7/123. Use of crestal bone for augmentation of extremely knife-edged alveolar ridges prior to implant placement: report of 3 cases.

    A technique is presented for interforaminal lateral augmentation of mandibles with adequate bone height, but extremely knife-edged mandibular alveolar ridges (Class IV of Cawood and Howell's classification of residual ridges), in which the crestal portion of the knife-edged ridge is used as grafting material. Following an osteotomy and rotation of the grafts by 180 degrees, the grafts were fixed to the residual ridge below the osteotomy line by means of miniscrews. All grafts showed only mild resorption after a healing period of 3 months, and it was possible to place 4 implants in the now sufficiently wide host region.
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keywords = alveolar
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8/123. Leukocyte adhesion deficiency in a child with severe oral involvement.

    Leukocyte adhesion deficiency is a rare inherited defect of phagocytic function resulting from a lack of leukocyte cell surface expression of beta2 integrin molecules (CD11 and CD18) that are essential for leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells and chemotaxis. A small number of patients with leukocyte adhesion deficiency-1 have a milder defect, with residual expression of CD18. These patients tend to survive beyond infancy; they manifest progressive severe periodontitis, alveolar bone loss, periodontal pocket formation, and partial or total premature loss of the primary and permanent dentitions. We report on a 13-year-old boy with moderate leukocyte adhesion deficiency-1 and severe prepubertal periodontitis. This case illustrates the need for the dentist to work closely with the pediatrician in the prevention of premature tooth loss and control of oral infection in these patients.
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keywords = alveolar
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9/123. The use of tricalcium phosphate to preserve alveolar bone in a patient with ectodermal dysplasia: a case report.

    The prosthodontic management of the child with ectodermal dysplasia is made difficult because of the under-development of the alveolar ridges. This paper describes a case where tricalcium phosphate was placed in sockets immediately following the extraction of the primary incisor teeth to help maintain alveolar bone width, offering a valuable alternative treatment option in the prosthodontic management of the child patient with ectodermal dysplasia.
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keywords = alveolar
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10/123. Treatment of molar furcation involvement using root separation and a crown and sleeve-coping telescopic denture. A longitudinal study.

    Because of the inconsistent results of periodontal and prosthetic therapy, periodontists may choose to treat maxillary molar furcation involvements (FI) with poor root morphology utilizing a root resection technique (RRT). In addition, poor root morphology of the remaining root following RRT is usually considered a high risk factor for long-term periodontal and prosthetic success. The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the differences in the clinical periodontal parameters between molar abutments with and without molar root separation and/or resection (RSR) before and after periodontal and prosthetic therapy, using a crown and sleeve-coping telescopic denture (CSCTD). A total of 85 molars (47 maxillary and 38 mandibular) were treated in 25 subjects. There were 33 abutments without root separation/resection and 52 abutments with RSR. Forty-three CSCTD were placed, 23 in the maxillary arch and 20 in the mandibular arch. The mean observation period was 6.7 /-1.9 years (range, 5 to 13 years). The plaque index, gingival index, probing depth, clinical attachment level, and alveolar bone change were recorded. The differences in these parameters before and after periodontal and prosthetic therapy between the advanced furcation-involved molars with and without RSR were evaluated. The results revealed a remarkable improvement in the periodontal parameters in advanced Class II and Class III FI in molars with RSR as compared to those without RSR. It was, therefore, concluded that molar abutments with RSR in conjunction with a specifically designed telescopic device provide a modified approach for treating molars with advanced Class II and III FI.
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