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1/22. The invaluable pressure-volume curve.

    We present a case in which the pressure-volume (P-V) curve proved invaluable in the diagnostic workup of a patient. The patient was a 43-year-old man who presented with progressive dyspnea on exertion, restrictive spirometry, exercise desaturation, and an unremarkable CT scan. Because of the unexpected finding of an unremarkable CT scan, we wanted more data assuring the presence of an indication for lung biopsy. Detailed pulmonary function tests, including a P-V curve, were administered. The P-V curve was abnormal, thus prompting a biopsy, which revealed hypersensitivity pneumonitis. In this report, we discuss the use of P-V curves and the clinical presentation of hypersensitivity pneumonitis.
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2/22. Hard metal alveolitis accompanied by rheumatoid arthritis.

    Hard metal lung diseases (HML) are rare, and complex to diagnose. We describe the case of a patient with allergic alveolitis accompanied by rheumatoid arthritis. A sharpener of hard metal by trade, our patient was a 45-year-old, nonsmoking Caucasian female who experienced symptoms of cough and phlegm, and dyspnea on exertion. Preliminary lung findings were inspiratory rales in both basal areas, decreased diffusion capacity and a radiological picture resembling sarcoidosis. A high-resolution computed tomography scan indicated patchy alveolitis as well. An open lung biopsy revealed non-necrotizing granulomas consisting of epitheloid cells and surrounded by lymphocytes, plasma cells and a few eosinophils. These cells also occupied the thickened alveolar interstitium. macrophages in the alveolar spaces, some of them multinuclear, contained dust particles. Hard metal alveolitis is clinically well known and, in this patient, has been described histologically. After the patient had quit working with hard metal and following corticosteroid therapy, pulmonary symptoms and signs were relieved. During this recovery period, however, she contracted rheumatoid arthritis.
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3/22. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis from a proteolytic enzyme.

    BACKGROUND: subtilisins are proteolytic enzymes of bacterial origin found in detergents. They are high-molecular-weight antigens and have been implicated in allergic rhinitis and asthma. OBJECTIVE: This report describes a case of extrinsic allergic alveolitis due to subtilisins in a liquid cleaner. methods: Clinical, radiologic, and serologic information were used to make the diagnosis. CASE REPORT: A 53-year-old woman developed respiratory symptoms while working with a cleaner containing subtilisins. Her symptoms intensified in the work environment and improved away from work. A computed tomography scan demonstrated alveolar and interstitial infiltrates with subsequent scarring. A pulmonary function study revealed a restrictive pattern with diminished diffusion capacity. Bronchoalveolar lavage showed lymphocytosis and all cultures were negative. Precipitating antibodies to the enzyme were found in the patient's serum. Her symptoms improved once she changed her occupation. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of the patient's clinical history, physical, laboratory, and radiologic findings support the diagnosis of extrinsic allergic alveolitis from the enzyme contained in the cleaner.
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4/22. Haemorrhagic hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to naphthylene-1,5-diisocyanate.

    Symptoms of hypersensitivity pneumonitis and massive pulmonary haemorrhage occurred in a 24-yr-old male shortly after occupational exposure to naphthylene-1,5-diisocyanate (NDI). The present examination was performed approximately 1-yr after the initial life-threatening haemoptysis and following an uneventful recovery after resection of the middle lobe, which had been identified bronchoscopically as the bleeding source. Histological re-examination of the lung was compatible with hypersensitivity pneumonitis. After a chamber challenge with NDI (5 parts per billion (ppb) for 10 min, 10 ppb for 110 min), rales were heard in both lungs, and a fall in vital capacity and partial pressure of arterial oxygen as well as a rise in body temperature were documented. Isocyanate-specific immunoglobulin-G antibodies could not be detected in the patient's serum, possibly due to the long period without exposure to isocyanates. The authors conclude that naphthylene-1,5-diisocyanate may cause immunological pulmonary haemorrhage. The underlying disease is consistent with hypersensitivity pneumonitis and may be triggered by low concentrations of the diisocyanate.
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keywords = vital capacity, capacity
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5/22. fever and neutrophilic alveolitis caused by a vanadium based catalyst.

    AIMS: To investigate a worker who experienced systemic and respiratory symptoms when exposed to a vanadium containing powder used as a catalyst in the production of maleic anhydride. methods: The investigation included inhalation challenge with the suspected compound combined with monitoring of lung function tests and post-challenge bronchoalveolar lavage. RESULTS: Exposure to the vanadium containing catalyst for 120 minutes resulted in a sustained decline in forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second, while the transfer factor for carbon monoxide did not change significantly. The subject developed fever and peripheral blood neutrophilia. Bronchoalveolar lavage performed 48 hours after the end of challenge exposure showed a marked increase in neutrophils (60% of total cell count). CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to vanadium can cause a metal fume fever-like syndrome associated with neutrophilic alveolitis.
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keywords = vital capacity, capacity, volume
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6/22. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis induced by the yeast Debaryomyces hansenii.

    A 65-yr-old female developed cough, fever and dyspnoea following repeated exposure to a home ultrasonic humidifier. High-resolution computed tomography showed ground-glass opacity in both lung fields. Arterial blood gas analysis gave an oxygen tension of 8.38 kPa (63 Torr). Pulmonary function testing revealed restrictive ventilatory impairment with a reduction in the diffusing capacity. The diagnosis of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) was confirmed by radiographic findings, pathological evidence of alveolitis and reproductive development by a provocation test to the humidifier water. The yeast Debaryomyces Hansenii was the only microorganism cultured from the water of the humidifier. The double diffusion precipitating test and lymphocyte proliferative response was positive for an extract of D. Hansenii, providing evidence to incriminate this fungus. This is the first described case of EAA caused by D. Hansenii.
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7/22. hypersensitivity pneumonitis induced by Shiitake mushroom spores.

    hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to the inhalation of Shiitake mushroom spores was demonstrated in a 38-year-old woman. Symptoms of cough, nausea and malaise, and clinical findings of cyanosis, bibasilar crackles, reduced lung volumes, hypoxemia, leukocytosis, elevated ESR, positive c-reactive protein, and bilateral diffuse reticulonodular shadows on chest roentgenogram improved after the patient was removed from exposure. Alveolitis was demonstrated by transbronchial lung biopsy, as well as an increase in lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage. serum precipitins and specific IgG antibodies to an extract of Shiitake mushroom spores, but not to other common molds or mushroom body, were detected in serum. Provocative inhalation test with the extract of mushroom spores caused the same clinical symptoms and signs as experienced in the workroom. This is the first report of typical hypersensitivity pneumonitis induced by Shiitake mushroom spores. Mushroom spores as well as thermophilic actinomycetes must be considered a causative agents for mushroom worker's lung.
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8/22. hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by esparto dust in a young plaster worker: a case report and review of the literature.

    We report a case of a 25-year-old, white, male plaster worker who started developing fever, severe dyspnea and cough during the manipulation of esparto fibers. The functional lung study showed restrictive lung disease and decreased single-breath carbon monoxide transfer lung capacity. High-resolution computed tomography revealed a diffuse 'ground-glass' pattern. The histopathological findings were interstitial inflammation with a marked predominance of lymphocytes and microgranulomas. Bronchoalveolar lavage showed a significant predominance of lymphocytes, with an increase in the level of CD8. serum precipitins against fungal antigens confirmed that aspergillus fumigatus was the cause of the patient's hypersensitivity pneumonitis.
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9/22. The respiratory effects of cobalt.

    We studied seven subjects with certain manifestations of cobalt-induced lung disease. All worked with cobalt and were involved in either the production or use of hard metal. The mode of presentation varied from an acute hypersensitivity pneumonitis that cleared completely when exposure ceased to progressive severe interstitial fibrosis of the lungs. In one subject reexposure was followed by a recurrence of the symptoms. All subjects showed restrictive ventilatory impairment and a reduction of their diffusing capacity. The radiologic appearances varied greatly. While two subjects had clear roentgenograms with small lung volumes, others had a micronodular pattern or small blotchy nodular infiltrates, and one had diffuse reticulonodulation as is seen in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis. The pathologic appearances varied between desquamative interstitial pneumonia and overt mural fibrosis of the alveoli. Six of the seven patients had multinucleated giant cells in their biopsy specimens or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.
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ranking = 278.69783737245
keywords = capacity, volume
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10/22. Parrot breeder's lung: first case report in china.

    The authors report the first case of parrot breeder's lung in china and the study of its immunology, respiratory physiology, as well as pathology. The main characteristics of this disease are progressive dyspnea after contacting parrots, patchy or reticular shadows in the lower lung fields on chest X-ray, the presence of alveolitis, accompanied by pulmonary interstitial fibrosis as demonstrated in lung biopsy, restrictive or mixed ventilation disorders with reduction of diffusing capacity and lung compliance. The results of specific ring precipitation test and counter immunoelectrophoresis were helpful in diagnosis. The importance of early diagnosis and treatment is also discussed.
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