Cases reported "Alzheimer Disease"

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1/131. Alzheimer's disease pathology in motor cortex in dementia with lewy bodies clinically mimicking corticobasal degeneration.

    We report here a 70-year-old woman whose initial clinical presentation suggested corticobasal degeneration, but autopsy revealed dementia with lewy bodies (DLB) with severe Alzheimer's disease (AD)-type pathology accentuated in the motor cortex, in conjunction with a high burden of both cortical and brain stem LB. review of the literature disclosed four patients with AD whose peri-Rolandic region was particularly involved by the disease and who exhibited similar clinical and neuropathological findings as in our patient except they lacked LB. It appears that DLB if associated with severe AD-type pathology can, like some unusual cases of AD, mimic corticobasal degeneration.
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2/131. Mapping biochemistry to metabolism: FDG-PET and amyloid burden in Alzheimer's disease.

    We evaluated the relationship between amyloid-beta protein (A beta) concentration and the metabolic abnormality in an Alzheimer's disease (AD) patient as measured by [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Across most regions there were significant inverse correlations among FDG-PET intensity values and both insoluble. The temporal lobe samples showed no significant correlation between FDG-PET values and A beta deposition. Findings support A beta as contributing to the hypometabolism in regions of the AD brain that are still relatively viable metabolically; those regions with chronic pathologic damage, such as temporal cortex, may have other factors that contribute to metabolic deficits.
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3/131. Novel presenilin-1 mutation with widespread cortical amyloid deposition but limited cerebral amyloid angiopathy.

    OBJECTIVE: To clarify the phenotypic heterogeneity in deposition of amyloid beta (Abeta) in the parenchyma and in cerebral vessels of the brains of the patients having presenilin-1 (PS1) mutations. Mutations in PS1 induce increased production of Abeta42(43), resulting in an enhanced overall deposition of Abeta protein within the cerebral cortex. methods: sequence analysis of the PS1 gene of dna from patients with early onset Alzheimer's disease, and immunostaining of brain tissues by end specific monoclonal antibodies against Abeta. RESULTS: sequence analysis disclosed a novel mutation (N405S) in the PS1 gene in a Japanese patient with early-onset Alzheimer's disease. Postmortem examination of one patient with N405S showed limited cerebral amyloid angiopathy, whereas postmortem examination of another Japanese patient with Alzheimer's disease with the E184D mutation disclosed severe cerebral amyloid angiopathy. The brains of both patients showed widespread neuritic plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuronal loss. Immunostaining showed that Abeta42 was predominant over Abeta40 in neuritic plaques in both patients, whereas Abeta40 was found to be predominant over Abeta42 in cerebral amyloid angiopathy in the patient with E184D. However, most cortical vessels of the patient with N405S were not reactive with either of the antibodies. CONCLUSION: The N405S mutation of PS1 is a major determinant of cortical Abeta deposition but not cerebral amyloid angiopathy in Alzheimer's disease.
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4/131. Anterior choroidal artery infarction presenting as a progressive cognitive deficit.

    PURPOSE: The authors describe a patient in whom neuroimaging using Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT, F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) coincidence imaging, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) identified an anterior choroidal artery infarction. neuroimaging played a critical role in confirming this diagnosis, because the patient had symptoms of progressive cognitive decline and satisfied the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and stroke-Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders association criteria for Alzheimer's disease (AD). methods: Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT was performed using a triple-head gamma camera. F-18 FDG scanning was obtained 40 minutes after intravenous injection of 5 mCi F-18 FDG using a coincidence camera. A brain MRI scan was performed using a 1.5-Tesla scanner. RESULTS: Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT showed focal hypoperfusion to the right parahippocampal cortex. F-18 FDG coincidence imaging showed a more extensive reduction in glucose metabolism compared with SPECT. The MRI scan confirmed the presence of a small segmental choroidal artery infarction. The Tc-99m HMPAO and F-18 FDG scans were not consistent with AD. CONCLUSIONS: This case illustrates the value of the regional cerebral blood flow SPECT for evaluating memory impairment in the elderly. Decreased regional cerebral blood flow to the posterior temporoparietal region is consistent with AD, whereas regional cerebral blood flow diminution in a vascular territory is consistent with vascular dementia. In this case, the patient was clinically diagnosed with AD, and SPECT was performed to establish the baseline regional cerebral blood flow before the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil was administered. An infarction was diagnosed on the regional cerebral blood flow brain SPECT scan, which was later confirmed by MRI. Infarctions of the parahippocampal cortex may resuft in memory impairment, which can appear clinically similar to AD.
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5/131. Vascular and metabolic reserve in Alzheimer's disease.

    Vascular and metabolic reserve were analyzed in probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO(2)), and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) were measured quantitatively with positron emission tomography (PET). Vascular reactivity (VR) was also calculated by comparing the CBF during 5% CO(2) inhalation with the CBF during normal breathing. Vascular transit time (VTT) that was calculated as a ratio of CBV/CBF and VR reflect vasodilating capacity of the small resistance vessels, whereas OEF designates metabolic (oxygen-extraction) reserve in threatening brain ischemia. Significant increase in OEF was seen in the parieto-temporal cortex and both VTT and VR were preserved in AD patients. By constrast, there was no significant increase in OEF whereas VTT was prolonged and VR was markedly depressed in VaD patients. The increase of OEF and preserved VTT and VR seen in AD patients indicate the possible participation of vascular factors in the pathogenesis of AD perhaps at the capillary level.
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6/131. Glial intranuclear inclusion bodies in a patient with Alzheimer's disease.

    We report a case of dementia in an elderly woman with the pathological findings of Alzheimer's disease and numerous intranuclear inclusions in astrocytes and occasionally in neurons. These inclusions were seen in the cerebral cortex, limbic areas, basal ganglia, thalamus, brain stem and cerebellum. They expressed ubiquitin and were ultrastructurally composed of haphazardly arranged straight filaments. The presence of similar intranuclear inclusions in previous cases of adult-onset dementia without other neuropathological changes suggests an important link between these kind of inclusions and dementia. To our knowledge, this type of intranuclear inclusions has not been previously described in association with Alzheimer pathology.
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7/131. Atypical dementia and spastic paraplegia in a patient with primary lateral sclerosis and numerous necortical beta amyloid plaques: new disorder or Alzheimer's disease variant?

    Primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) and hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) are clinically similar disorders in which progressive lower limb spasticity and corticospinal tract degeneration are characteristic. We report the occurrence of progressive spastic paraplegia and frontal systems dementia in a patient with postmortem features of PLS combined with moderate Alzheimer-like changes in neocortex and hippocampus. This combination of clinical and neuropathologic findings has not been described in PLS or HSP and varies from other cases in which spastic paraplegia, dementia, and Alzheimer neuropathology occurred concurrently. This 69-year-old woman developed spastic quadriplegia and dementia over 12 years. Left leg weakness progressed over 7 years to paraplegia, then quadriplegia by age 68. Sensory and cerebellar function were preserved and fasciculations were absent. dementia characterized by concrete thinking, perseveration, and impaired executive function appeared in the seventh year and remained relatively stable until 6 months before death at age 69. Degeneration of the lateral corticospinal and dorsal spinocerebellar tracts confined to the spinal cord was evident at postmortem examination. brain stem, midbrain, and cerebellum were normal. Numerous beta/A4 amyloid positive diffuse plaques (10-15/200x field) were apparent in neocortex, and neurofibrillary tangles immunopositive for paired helical filament were detected in hippocampus. This case broadens the spectrum of disorders associated with Alzheimer neuropathologic changes. The relationship between PLS, HSP, and Alzheimer's disease requires further study.
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8/131. Senile dementia associated with amyloid beta protein angiopathy and tau perivascular pathology but not neuritic plaques in patients homozygous for the APOE-epsilon4 allele.

    Amyloid beta protein deposition in cortical and leptomeningeal vessels, causing the most common type of cerebral amyloid angiopathy, is found in sporadic and familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is the principal feature in the hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis, Dutch type. The presence of the Apolipopriotein E (APOE)-epsilon4 allele has been implicated as a risk factor for AD and the development of cerebral amyloid angiopathy in AD. We report clinical, pathological and biochemical studies on two APOE-epsilon4 homozygous subjects, who had senile dementia and whose main neuropathological feature was a severe and diffuse amyloid angiopathy associated with perivascular tau neurofibrillary pathology. Amyloid beta protein and ApoE immunoreactivity were observed in leptomeningeal vessels as well as in medium-sized and small vessels and capillaries in the parenchyma of the neocortex, hippocampus, thalamus, cerebellum, midbrain, pons, and medulla. The predominant peptide form of amyloid beta protein was that terminating at residue Val40, as determined by immunohistochemistry, amino acid sequence and mass spectrometry analysis. A crown of tau-immunopositive cell processes was consistently present around blood vessels. dna sequence analysis of the Amyloid Precursor Protein gene and presenilin-1 (PS-1) gene revealed no mutations. In these APOE-epsilon4 homozygous patients, the pathological process differed from that typically seen in AD in that they showed a heavy burden of perivascular tau-immunopositive cell processes associated with severe amyloid beta protein angiopathy, neurofibrillary tangles, some cortical lewy bodies and an absence of neuritic plaques. These cases emphasize the concept that tau deposits may be pathogenetically related to amyloid beta protein deposition.
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9/131. An autopsy case of Alzheimer's disease presenting with primary progressive aphasia: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study.

    This report describes an autopsied Alzheimer's disease (AD) patient with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) as an early symptom. The patient developed a progressive speech disturbance at the age of 70 years, and difficulty in comprehension became apparent 2 years later. magnetic resonance imaging scan disclosed asymmetrical brain atrophy, predominantly on the left temporal lobe. At the age of 74 years, the patient's dementia rapidly progressed with parkinsonism and he died after a disease duration of 6 years. At autopsy, the brain showed a marked temporo-frontal lobe atrophy, predominantly on the left side. There was severe neuronal loss with gliosis and tissue rarefaction in the atrophied cerebral cortex and amygdala. Many neurofibrillary tangles with neuropil threads were found in the cerebral cortex. Numerous amyloid deposits were distributed throughout the cerebral cortex, accompanied by amyloid angiopathies. This patient was clinically diagnosed with temporal lobe-dominant Pick's disease, although the possibility of corticobasal degeneration was made. The neuropathological diagnosis was AD with asymmetrical brain atrophy and widespread amyloid angiopathies.
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10/131. dementia with lewy bodies studied with positron emission tomography.

    OBJECTIVE: To report a case initially fulfilling the clinical criteria for probable alzheimer disease, although later clinical features suggested dementia with lewy bodies. oxygen 15-labeled positron emission tomograms revealed a pattern of hypometabolism characteristic of alzheimer disease. At post mortem, there was no evidence of the pathological features of alzheimer disease, but diffuse cortical lewy bodies were seen in the pigmented brainstem nuclei and cerebral cortex. DESIGN: A case report. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENT: A 65-year-old white man presented with a 3-year history of memory loss and language difficulties. RESULTS: oxygen 15-labeled positron emission tomograms revealed hypometabolism in the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes, more severe on the left than right. metabolism in the left caudate was just outside the 95% reference range. Occipital metabolism was normal. CONCLUSIONS: Positron emission tomographic studies have been reported to show occipital hypometabolism in dementia with lewy bodies, in addition to the characteristic posterior bitemporal biparietal pattern of alzheimer disease. We suggest that although this finding may favor a diagnosis of dementia with lewy bodies, it is not necessary for diagnosis.
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