Cases reported "Alzheimer Disease"

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1/37. A disorder of colour perception associated with abnormal colour after-images: a defect of the primary visual cortex.

    A 64 year old woman with posterior cortical atrophy secondary to probable Alzheimer's disease is described. Her presenting symptom was of seeing objects as abnormally coloured after prior exposure to a coloured stimulus. Formal testing disclosed that the patient experienced colour after-images of abnormal latency, duration, and amplitude.The demonstration of prolonged colour after-images in a patient with a cortical disease process provides strong evidence that the generation of colour after-images is mediated at least in part by the visual cortex. A mechanism for the generation of colour after-images is proposed in which abnormal prolongation of the images results from excessive rebound inhibition of previously excited wavelength selective neurons in V1. This may occur as a consequence of the relative sparing of inhibitory interneurons in V1 in the context of the degeneration of excitatory neurons that occurs in Alzheimer's disease.
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keywords = perception
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2/37. Emotional well-being in a person with dementia.

    Self-reported mood and observations of affect are often used as indicators of emotional well-being. The purpose of this case study was to (a) describe the self-reported mood and affective pattern of an older man with severe cognitive impairments, (b) assess consistency in his responses to mood state, (c) compare mood pattern to premorbid personality, and (d) determine the concordance between self-reported mood and observed affect. Observations of mood and affect were taken three times per day for 35 days. There was concordance between self-reported mood and observed affect. The participant was consistent in his responses to mood 75% of the time. The pattern of self-reported mood reflected the participant's long-standing personality traits of extraversion and neuroticism. Results, although not generalizable, demonstrate the need to consider the perspective of the person with dementia when addressing quality-of-life issues in research and practice.
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ranking = 0.25833276415545
keywords = research
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3/37. The parent they knew and the "new" parent: daughters' perceptions of dementia of the Alzheimer's Type.

    Psychosocial death is a significant dimension of the dementia of the Alzheimer's Type disease process but poorly studied. This article explores three phases of psychosocial death that emerged from in-depth interviews with three daughters caring for a parent with this chronic illness. The phases discussed include: (1) daughters creating a new relationship with their parent; (2) daughters grieving chronically throughout the illness; (3) daughters negotiating coherence between the parent that once was and the parent that exists now. Daughters' narratives reveal that witnessing the deterioration of a mind was a burdensome grave learning process that encompassed many losses. These daughters lacked appropriate education and support. Future research in this area is required to develop strategies for informal caregivers that respond to this disease process.
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ranking = 1.2583327641555
keywords = research, perception
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4/37. visual perception without awareness in a patient with posterior cortical atrophy: impaired explicit but not implicit processing of global information.

    A patient with progressive posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) was examined on several tests of visual cognition. The patient displayed multiple visual cognitive deficits, which included problems identifying degraded stimuli, attending to two or more stimuli simultaneously, recognizing faces, tracing simple visual stimuli, matching simple shapes, and copying objects. The patient was also impaired in identifying visual targets contained at the global level within global-local stimuli (i.e., smaller letters that compose a larger letter). Although the patient denied any conscious awareness of the global form, he nevertheless displayed a normal pattern of global interference when asked to identify local level targets. Thus, the patient processed the global information despite not being consciously aware of such information. These results suggest that global-local processing can take place in the absence of awareness. Possible neurocognitive mechanisms explaining this dissociation are discussed.
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keywords = perception
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5/37. Object recognition and object orientation in Alzheimer's disease.

    There are a wide variety of neuropsychological deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD), among which are disorders of visual perception and spatial cognition. The present study investigated the ability of 20 mildly to moderately deteriorated patients with AD (and 174 age- and education-matched controls) on tasks that required them to visually identify, provide the canonical orientation of, and mentally rotate common objects. Some 85% of the AD patients performed poorly on all tasks. The authors were able to identify a small number of individual patients whose pattern of performance represented double dissociations between recognizing objects and knowing their canonical orientation. These findings are interpreted in the context of previous findings, especially as to whether information relating to an object's orientation and identity is independently coded.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = perception
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6/37. Evaluating end-of-life care from the perspective of the patient's family.

    This article is written from personal experiences with the recent death of the authors' mother. It highlights the problems the authors encountered, while acknowledging the positive aspects of treatment during a difficult time. The overall purpose is to improve end-of-life care by advancing policy through research, legislation, and education. The impetus for writing this article is personal experience, but its larger purpose is to address issues that many readers will face in the future and suggest possible reforms, especially in the area of education.
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ranking = 0.25833276415545
keywords = research
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7/37. Diffuse lewy body disease - a clinical syndrome or a disease entity?

    Most clinicians and researchers still accept diffuse lewy body disease (DLBD) as a clinicopathological entity. dementia with fluctuating cognitive deficits, a parkinsonian syndrome, and visual hallucinations are the core symptoms of this proposed disease entity. From a neuropathological point of view, many examples of patients with progressive dementia showing evidence of extensive Lewy body formation in the cerebral cortex together with the occurrence of lewy bodies in substantia nigra and locus coeruleus have been identified. Confusingly, a large majority of cases showing typical features of DLBD also present with an Alzheimer pathology in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. It is far from clear that DLBD represents a specific disease entity rather an intermediate variant between alzheimer disease and idiopathic parkinsonian syndromes. Nevertheless, from a clinical point of view it may be of importance to characterize patients with a symptomatology of DLBD because important management issues such as avoidance of severe neuroleptic sensitivity reactions, dopaminergic antiparkinsonian treatment and a beneficial response to cholinesterase inhibitors can be applied.
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ranking = 0.25833276415545
keywords = research
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8/37. The Roy Adaptation Model and care of persons with Alzheimer's disease.

    This article uses current nursing literature to examine the congruence of the care of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) with the Roy adaptation model. In relating concepts of the Roy model to the care of patients with Alzheimer's disease, it was found that ineffective coping responses can be used to describe disease-related disruptive behaviors. The degenerative disease process would result in the impairment of focal stimuli, such as memory and personality. Because focal stimuli are progressively impaired, the goal of nursing using the Roy model would be to promote adaptive responses through manipulation of the contextual stimuli, the patient's environment. Nursing literature describing positive patient outcomes following environmental interventions suggests that the Roy adaptation model could be very valuable in directing nursing research and devising nursing care strategies for patients with Alzheimer's disease.
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ranking = 0.25833276415545
keywords = research
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9/37. When sporadic disease is not sporadic: the potential for genetic etiology.

    BACKGROUND: Approximately 2% of alzheimer disease cases and 10% to 15% of prion disease cases are due to mutations in autosomal dominant genes. Mutations have been found in patients without family histories of neurological disease. OBJECTIVES: To emphasize the need for consideration of a genetic etiology of prion disease and early-onset alzheimer disease, regardless of the absence of a significant family history, as well as the need for pretest genetic counseling of all patients or their families. DESIGN: Three case reports. patients AND RESULTS: Patient 1, a 53-year-old man with possible Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, was enrolled in a research study that included sequencing of the prion protein gene. Although there was no family history of neurological disease, an E200K mutation was found. This unexpected result caused the family significant distress. Patient 2, a 55-year-old woman with biopsy-proven Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, participated in a prion disease research study. Her family was counseled about the possibility of hereditary Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, despite the lack of family history. After assessing the ramifications, the family decided not to learn about the patient's genetic test results. Patient 3 was a 54-year-old man with a 6-year history of memory loss. A diagnosis of probable alzheimer disease was given, and the patient and his family were counseled on the availability of presenilin 1 testing, although there was no known family history of dementia. The family agreed to testing, and a presenilin 1 mutation was identified. CONCLUSIONS: Certain neurodegenerative diseases may have a genetic etiology, despite the lack of a positive family history. Revealing a newly discovered hereditary cause of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease or alzheimer disease can have a profound effect on families. Pretest counseling on genetic issues is essential to better prepare families and to allow them to make an informed choice about learning genetic test results.
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ranking = 0.51666552831091
keywords = research
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10/37. paintings of an artist with Alzheimer's disease: visuoconstructural deficits during dementia.

    patients suffering from Alzheimer's dementia (AD) have increasing difficulties to orient in space and often fail to recognize basic realities and even their closest relatives. These symptoms lead to severe deterioration of everyday life and finally to total dependence. In this report we present the case of Carolus Horn, a famous german artist, who contracted with AD. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of changes in his artwork during disease progression gives an impressive insight into the patient's visual world and how it becomes increasingly affected by delusional misperceptions, spatial errors and changes of colour-perception in the course of disease. Carolus Horn's artwork lets us see the world through the patient's eyes and by that it helps us to better understand the consequences of visuospatial and cognitive changes in AD.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = perception
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