Cases reported "Alzheimer Disease"

Filter by keywords:



Filtering documents. Please wait...

1/9. Mapping the C terminal epitope of the Alzheimer's disease specific antibody MN423.

    The mapping of monoclonal antibody epitopes is now predominantly carried out using molecular diversity techniques, phage display in particular. However, until very recently, phage display methods have been inappropriate for the analysis of epitopes that require a free carboxy terminus. Here we describe the use of two different techniques to analyze the known C terminal epitope specificity of MN423, a monoclonal antibody specifically staining truncated tau in Alzheimer's brain. Using a lambda phage based C-terminal random peptide library, and an intracellular expression library based on truncated tau, we show that this antibody has an absolute requirement for a glycine at position -3 with respect to the C terminus. Both methods give similar results, and identify other important residues in the binding site. However, affinity analysis of synthetic peptides revealed that the affinity of the antibody for identified tripeptides was far lower than the pentapeptide sequence in the native target, and that this in turn was considerably below the affinity for the native target itself. This suggests that molecular diversity methods may define minimum, but not necessarily complete epitopes. The methods described here have a general application to the analysis of antibody epitopes suspected to be found at the C terminus.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = specificity
(Clic here for more details about this article)

2/9. copper perturbation in 2 monozygotic twins discordant for degree of cognitive impairment.

    BACKGROUND: Recent evidence indicates that peripheral tissue markers can provide information regarding changes affecting cellular metabolism in alzheimer disease (AD). We previously reported that serum copper levels can discriminate subjects with AD from normal control subjects (with 60% sensitivity and 95% specificity) and from patients with vascular dementia (with 63% sensitivity and 85% specificity). OBJECTIVE: To study the correlation between AD and serum levels of transition metals and markers of peripheral oxidative stress. DESIGN: Case study. SETTING: General hospital inpatient wards and outpatient clinics.patients A pair of elderly monozygotic female twins discordant for AD. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Biochemical analyses of peripheral-blood transition metals and indicators of oxidative stress and neurologic and neuropsychological assessments of clinical status for presence of cognitive impairment and AD. RESULTS: serum copper and total peroxide levels were both 44% higher in the twin with greater cognitive impairment and a diagnosis of AD. CONCLUSIONS: The cases reported support the hypothesis of a major involvement of copper and oxidative abnormalities in AD.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 2
keywords = specificity
(Clic here for more details about this article)

3/9. Impaired allocentric spatial memory underlying topographical disorientation.

    The cognitive processes supporting spatial navigation are considered in the context of a patient (CF) with possible very early Alzheimer's disease who presents with topographical disorientation. Her verbal memory and her recognition memory for unknown buildings, landmarks and outdoor scenes was intact, although she showed an impairment in face processing. By contrast, her navigational ability, quantitatively assessed within a small virtual reality (VR) town, was significantly impaired. Interestingly, she showed a selective impairment in a VR object-location memory test whenever her viewpoint was shifted between presentation and test, but not when tested from the same viewpoint. We suggest that a specific impairment in locating objects relative to the environment rather than relative to the perceived viewpoint (i.e. allocentric rather than egocentric spatial memory) underlies her topographical disorientation. We discuss the likely neural bases of this deficit in the light of related studies in humans and animals, focusing on the hippocampus and related areas. The specificity of our test indicates a new way of assessing topographical disorientation, with possible application to the assessment of progressive dementias such as Alzheimer's disease.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = specificity
(Clic here for more details about this article)

4/9. Lewy body prevalence in the aging brain: relationship to neuropsychiatric disorders, Alzheimer-type pathology and catecholaminergic nuclei.

    In a survey to determine the occurrence of Levy bodies in the elderly, the prevalence rate of Lewy body formation was found to be critically dependent on the psychiatric status of control cases. In 131 controls between 51 and 100 years screened to exclude psychiatric and neurological disorders, the Lewy body prevalence rate was 2.3%, but inclusion of cases with psychiatric disorders other than Alzheimer's disease increased the prevalence rate to 9%. An age-related decline in substantia nigra and locus coeruleus neuron numbers was observed in the control group. brain stem Lewy body formation (found in 3 cases) was not necessarily linked with neuron loss in substantia nigra, though in two of the cases significant locus coeruleus neuron loss was observed. Within the control group, there was no obvious relationship of Lewy body formation to the extent of Alzheimer-type pathology. These findings are compatible with the disease specificity of lewy bodies and suggest that Lewy body disorders have a relatively short preclinical phase in which Lewy body formation may precede both locus coeruleus and substantia nigra neuron loss. The increase of Lewy body positive cases found when individuals with psychiatric disorders are included in the population surveyed supports the emerging concept of a spectrum of Lewy body diseases ranging from purely psychiatric disorders through combined psychoneurological or neuropsychiatric symptoms, to the classically described neurological disorders of Parkinson's disease.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = specificity
(Clic here for more details about this article)

5/9. Issues in molecular genetic testing of individuals with suspected early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease.

    The identification of mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene associated with the presence of early-onset familial alzheimer disease (AD) raises the possibility of their practical clinical application, at least in some circumstances, in the diagnostic assessment for AD. As a stimulus for discussion, a hypothetical, illustrative case vignette is presented. A 48-year-old man, concerned about recent memory loss and with a family history of early-onset AD, requested testing for the APP717 Val-->Ile mutation, previously identified in his relatives affected with AD. Whether the testing should be undertaken is considered in the context of the current interpretation of potential test results as well as the competency of the individual who requested the test to provide informed consent. informed consent includes an understanding of the foreseeable risks and benefits associated with disclosure of test results. Although molecular genetic testing in particular individuals, such as the man described herein, could be appropriate, it should not be interpreted to apply in general at this stage to individuals suspected of having AD. In view of a number of caveats, including the genetic heterogeneity of AD, which significantly limits the sensitivity and specificity of the currently available genetic tests, further research and discussion is strongly recommended before widespread introduction of molecular genetic testing for individuals with suspected AD.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = specificity
(Clic here for more details about this article)

6/9. Reductions in parietal and temporal cerebral metabolic rates for glucose are not specific for Alzheimer's disease.

    Reduction in the regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (rCMRglc) in the parietal and temporal regions has been shown in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The specificity of these findings for this disease state is uncertain. We repeatedly measured rCMRglc with positron emission tomography and [18F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose in the resting state in a 68 year old man with slowly progressive dementia who, during life, was initially diagnosed as having dementia of the Alzheimer type, then parkinson disease with dementia, but was found to have only Parkinson's disease at necropsy. Metabolic ratios (rCMRglc/mean grey CMRglc) were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in parietal and temporal regions, as well as in the prefrontal and premotor areas. This pattern was similar in regional distribution and magnitude of the defect to that seen in patients with probable AD. These results suggest that reductions of glucose metabolism in association neocortex in AD are not specific to the disease process, but may be related to the dementia state.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = specificity
(Clic here for more details about this article)

7/9. Identification and characterization of an anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein antibody with a unique specificity in a demented patient with an autoimmune disorder.

    We detected an antibody to a 48 kd antigen of the central nervous system in the serum from a demented patient with an autoimmune disorder. To identify and characterize the antigen, we screened a human cerebral cDNA library and performed immunoblot analysis following two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-D blotting). The sequences of the isolated cDNA fragments were homologous to human glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Two-D blotting using patient serum revealed that the antibody reacted with a restricted subset of GFAP molecules which exhibited relatively high isoelectric points. Furthermore, to elucidate the importance of the anti-GFAP antibody in dementia, we screened for the presence of an anti-GFAP antibody in the sera of 46 demented patients: 26 with Alzheimer's disease and 20 with vascular dementia (VD). We found an anti-GFAP antibody in the serum of only one patient with VD. Two-D blotting revealed that the anti-GFAP antibody in the serum from the VD patient reacted with a more acidic subset of GFAP molecules compared with the anti-GFAP antibody from our patient. In conjunction with the fact that the GFAP molecule with high isoelectric point was insoluble and less degraded, these results suggested that the anti-GFAP antibody in the serum of our patient was not generated due to a secondary response to soluble and degraded GFAP which leaked through the damaged blood-brain barrier as found in the VD patient, but was generated actively on the basis of dysregulation of the immune system. Possible effects of the autoantibody on astrocytic function and the pathogenesis in dementia are discussed.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 4
keywords = specificity
(Clic here for more details about this article)

8/9. Characterization of new polyclonal antibodies specific for 40 and 42 amino acid-long amyloid beta peptides: their use to examine the cell biology of presenilins and the immunohistochemistry of sporadic Alzheimer's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy cases.

    BACKGROUND: In Alzheimer's disease (AD), the main histological lesion is a proteinaceous deposit, the senile plaque, which is mainly composed of a peptide called A beta. The aggregation process is thought to occur through enhanced concentration of A beta 40 or increased production of the more readily aggregating 42 amino acid-long A beta 42 species. MATERIALS AND methods: Specificity of the antibodies was assessed by dot blot, Western blot, ELISA, and immunoprecipitation procedures on synthetic and endogenous A beta produced by secreted HK293 cells. A beta and p3 production by wild-type and mutated presenilin 1-expressing cells transiently transfected with beta APP751 was monitored after metabolic labeling and immunoprecipitation procedures. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on brains of sporadic and typical cerebrovascular amyloid angiopathy (CAA) cases. RESULTS: Dot and Western blot analyses indicate that IgG-purified fractions of antisera recognize native and denaturated A beta s. FCA3340 and FCA 3542 display full specificity for A beta 40 and A beta 42, respectively. antibodies immunoprecipitate their respective synthetic A beta species but also A beta s and their related p3 counterparts endogenously secreted by transfected human kidney 293 cells. This allowed us to show that mutations on presenilin 1 triggered similar increased ratios of A beta 42 and its p 342 counterpart over total A beta and p3. ELISA assays allow detection of about 25-50 pg/ml of A beta s and remain linear up to 750 to 1500 pg/ml without any cross-reactivity. FCA18 and FCA3542 label diffuse and mature plaques of a sporadic AD case whereas FCA3340 only reveals the mature lesions and particularly labels their central dense core. In a CAA case, FCA18 and FCA3340 reveal leptomeningeal and cortical arterioles whereas FCA3542 only faintly labels such structures. CONCLUSIONS: Polyclonal antibodies exclusively recognizing A beta 40 (FCA 3340) or A beta 42 (FCA3542) were obtained. These demonstrated that FAD-linked presenilins similarly affect both p342 and A beta 42, suggesting that these mutations misroute the beta APP to a compartment where gamma-secretase, but not alpha-secretase, cleavages are modified. overall, these antibodies should prove useful for fundamental and diagnostic approaches, as suggested by their usefulness for biochemical, cell biological, and immunohistochemical techniques.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = specificity
(Clic here for more details about this article)

9/9. Accurate prediction of histologically confirmed Alzheimer's disease and the differential diagnosis of dementia: the use of NINCDS-ADRDA and DSM-III-R criteria, SPECT, X-ray CT, and APO E4 medial temporal lobe dementias. The Oxford Project to Investigate memory and Aging.

    In a prospective study of more than 200 cases of dementia and 119 controls, annual technetium-99m-hexamethyl-propylene amineoxime (99mTc-HMPAO) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and annual medial temporal lobe (MTL) oriented X-ray computed tomography (CT) have been used to evaluate the diagnostic potential of functional and structural neuroimaging in the differential diagnosis of dementia. Some subjects have had up to 7 annual evaluations. So far, of 151 who have died, 143 (95%) have come to necropsy. histology is known for 118, of whom 80 had Alzheimer's disease (AD), 24 had other "non-AD" dementias, and 14 controls with no cognitive deficit in life also had no significant central nervous system pathology. To compare the findings in the dementias with the profile of structural and functional imaging in the cognitively normal elderly, scan data from 105 living, elderly controls without cognitive deficit have also been included in the analysis. All clinical diagnoses were according to National Institute of Neurological and Communicable Disease and stroke-Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders association (NINCDS-ADRDA) and the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed., rev.; DSM-III-R) criteria, and all histopathological diagnoses according to the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) criteria. Early data from this cohort have suggested that the combination of both MTL atrophy seen on CT with parietotemporal hypoperfusion on SPECT may predict the pathology of AD. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values of the NINCDS-ADRDA and DSM-III-R criteria could be assessed in this cohort against the gold standard of histopathology. The diagnostic potential of CT evidence of MTL atrophy alone, SPECT evidence of parietotemporal hypoperfusion alone, and the combination of both of these scan changes in the same individual could then be compared against the diagnostic accuracy of clinical operational criteria in the pathologically confirmed cases. Furthermore, all of these modalities could be compared with the diagnostic accuracy of apolipoprotein e4 (Apo E4) genotyping to predict AD in the histopathologically confirmed cohort. In this population, NINCDS "probable-AD" was 100% specific, 49% sensitive, and 66% accurate; "possible-AD" was only 61% specific, but 93% sensitive and 77% accurate; and the combination of both "probable-AD" and "possible-AD" was 61% specific, 96% sensitive, and 85% accurate. DSM-III-R criteria were 51% sensitive, 97% specific, and 66% accurate. In the same cases and including the 105 living, elderly controls, the diagnostic accuracy of the Oxford Project to Investigate memory and Aging (OPTIMA) scanning criteria showed CT alone to be 85% sensitive, 78% specific, and 80% accurate; SPECT alone had 89% sensitivity, 80% specificity, and 83% accuracy; and the combination of the two was 80% sensitive, 93% specific, and 88% accurate. The Apo E4 genotype was 74% sensitive but yielded 40% false positives in the histologically confirmed series. The diagnostic accuracy afforded by this method of CT and SPECT used alone is better than that of any established clinical criteria and reveals that the combination of MTL atrophy and parietotemporal hypoperfusion is common in AD, much less common in other dementias, and rare in normal controls. In the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria "possible-AD" cases, the combination of CT and SPECT findings alone were better in all diagnostic indices than the presence of Apo E4 alone in predicting AD. The frequent occurrence of MTL atrophy in AD and also in other "non-AD" dementias later in the course of the disease suggests the concept of medial temporal lobe dementia. This could explain some of the overlap of clinical profiles in the dementias, particularly as the dementia progresses, making clinical differential diagnosis difficult. In this context, the use of SPECT can significantly e
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 2
keywords = specificity
(Clic here for more details about this article)


Leave a message about 'Alzheimer Disease'


We do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. Click here for the full disclaimer.