Cases reported "Amblyopia"

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1/7. Chiasmopathy?

    A 57-year-old man presented with progressive visual loss in both eyes, bitemporal field defect, and a history of poor nutrition, alcohol abuse, and excessive cigar smoking. magnetic resonance imaging was normal. The visual acuity and field defect improved with supplementation with vitamins and reduction of alcohol and tobacco consumption. A diagnosis of toxic optic neuropathy was made. The authors discuss the differential diagnosis of bitemporal/pseudobitemporal field defects and the diagnosis and treatment of toxic optic neuropathy.
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keywords = tobacco
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2/7. A erimetric technique believed to test receptive field properties: sequential evaluation glaucoma and other conditions.

    We used a technique to simplify and speed up a perimetric test (Westheimer function). Through sequential testing, the technique was successfully used to evaluate pathologic findings and partially to evaluate treatment regimens in three subjects. One patient had an onset of kinetic field changes and Westheimer function alteration with primary open-angle glaucoma. Temporary remissions of alterations in the Westheimer function and kinetic visual field loss occurred in patients with glaucoma and tobacco-alcohol (complicated) amblyopia. Using these techniques it is possible to localize an anomaly in the outer retinal layer, the inner retinal layer, and central to the optic nerve head. We divided the inner and outer retinal layers on a vascular support basis.
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keywords = tobacco
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3/7. The perils of Pauline: visual loss in a tippler.

    A 31-year-old alcoholic woman who smoked had subacute visual loss. She was treated for tobacco-alcohol amblyopia with subsequent improvement in vision.
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keywords = tobacco
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4/7. Yellow forelock--a new neuro-ophthalmological sign.

    We examined a middle-aged man with a prominent yellow forelock who complained of loss of vision in both eyes. He smoked his pipe avidly and drank a little Bourbon whisky daily. The nicotine content of the forelock (21.7 ng/mg) was 10 times that of the hair on his occiput (2.23 ng/mg). A yellow forelock when associated with isolated painless visual loss suggests tobacco amblyopia.
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keywords = tobacco
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5/7. Whole blood cyanide levels in patients with tobacco amblyopia.

    Three patients presented with painless bilateral visual failure due to tobacco amblyopia. The whole blood cyanide levels were raised above those predicted from their high tobacco consumption, approaching lethal levels reported from acute inhalation of cyanide. Each patient had an excessive alcohol intake with biochemical evidence of hepatic dysfunction, the elevated whole blood cyanide levels being attributed to the associated impairment of cyanide detoxification. In each case the improvement in visual acuities following abstinence and hydroxycobalamin therapy was accompanied by a reduction in the whole blood cyanide level to within the normal range. Serial measurements of whole blood cyanide, serum alcohol, and the detection of urinary nicotine provided valuable indices of the patient's subsequent compliance and clinical progress.
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keywords = tobacco
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6/7. Fundus changes in acute malnutritional optic neuropathy.

    A peculiar dilation and tortuosity of small retinal vessels within the arcuate areas of the retinal nerve fiber layer occurred in a series of patients with acute malnutritional optic neuropathy ("tobacco-alcohol amblyopia"). These evanescent vascular abnormalities may be caused by arteriovenous shunting. They seem to be specific indicators of the early phase of this disease.
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keywords = tobacco
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7/7. tobacco amblyopia.

    tobacco amblyopia, once an important cause of bilateral optic neuropathy, has become so rare in the united states that some investigators doubt its existence. However, we treated two men who appeared to have this disorder. These two patients demonstrate that tobacco amblyopia can develop without malnutrition, alcoholism, or disordered vitamin B12 metabolism. Both patients recovered, one with cessation of smoking and the other with intramuscular administration of hydroxocobalamin despite continued smoking.
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keywords = tobacco
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