Cases reported "Amebiasis"

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1/3. Leptomyxid ameba, a new agent of amebic meningoencephalitis in humans and animals.

    Amebae belonging to the order Leptomyxida are regarded as innocuous soil organisms incapable of infecting mammals. We report here the isolation of a leptomyxid ameba from the brain of a pregnant baboon (papio sphinx) that died of meningoencephalitis at the San Diego Zoo Wild Animal Park. By using rabbit anti-leptomyxid serum in the immunofluorescence assay, we have identified the leptomyxid ameba in the brain sections of a number of human encephalitic cases from around the world as well as a few cases of meningoencephalitis in animals in the united states, which suggests that the leptomyxid amebae are potential etiologic agents of fatal meningoencephalitis in humans and animals.
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2/3. Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis.

    As a serendipitous by-product of polio virus research, a highly fatal amoebic meningoencephalitis was recognized in animals. The causative microorganisms, contaminants of the viral cultures, were identified as small soil amoebae. These organisms, previously considered non-pathogenic, are prevalent throughout the world. Based on animal studies, the original investigators suggested the possibility of a similar disease in humans. Seven years later, human cases of amoebic meningoencephalitis were reported from widely separated areas of the world. Since 1965, a total of 79 cases have been reported. The literature of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis is presented. The history of the discovery and elucidation of this disease is reviewed. The 79 cases reported in the world literature are divided into two groups, those diagnosed retrospectively after reviewing previous deaths from meningoencephalitis, and those diagnosed at the time of the illness. The classification, morphology, pathogenicity, virulence and distribution of pathogenic soil amoebae are reviewed. The presenting clinical findings, diagnostic procedures, pathology, and management of this recently recognized, highly fatal, human disease is presented along with a report of a new case. Otolaryngologists should become familiar with this serious disorder with a transnasal portal of entry.
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3/3. A case of primary amebic meningoencephalitis in a Nigerian farmer.

    A fatal case of primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAME) in a 35-year-old Nigerian Muslim farmer is described. The disease was contracted during ritual washing before prayers, which involved the sniffing of water up his nose to clean it. The water came from a man-made pond at his farm. The clinical presentation, isolation of the ameba from the cerebrospinal fluid and nasal passages, poor response to amphotericin b, and ultimate fatal outcome prove this to be a case of PAME. On the basis of its ability to grow at 42 degrees C, morphology of the trophozoite, cyst, and flagellate forms, animal pathogenicity, and nuclear division the ameba was identified as naegleria fowleri. Pathogenic N. fowleri were recovered from samples of water and soil from the pond. This represents the fourth proven case of PAME from northern nigeria.
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