Cases reported "Amebiasis"

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1/13. Primary amebic meningoencephalitis due to naegleria fowleri: an autopsy case in japan.

    Free-living amebas represented by naegleria fowleri, Acanthamoeba and Balamutia have been known to cause fatal meningoencephalitis since Fowler and Carter (1965) reported the first four human cases. An autopsy case of a 25-year-old female with primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) due to naegleria fowleri is described. headache, lethargy and coma developed in this patient, and her condition progressed to death 8 days after the onset of clinical symptoms. Cerebral spinal fluid examination confirmed clusters of amebas, which were grown in culture and identified as naegleria fowleri. At autopsy, lesions were seen in the central nervous system (CNS) and the ethmoid sinus. The CNS had severe, suppurative meningoencephalitis with amebic trophozoites mingled with macrophages. This case is the first report of PAM due to naegleria fowleri in japan.
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2/13. Disseminated acanthamebiasis in a renal transplant recipient with osteomyelitis and cutaneous lesions: case report and literature review.

    Disseminated acanthamebiasis is a rare disease that occurs predominantly in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome but also in immunosuppressed transplant recipients. Few reports have focused on non-hiv-infected patients, in whom the disease is more likely to go unsuspected and undiagnosed before death. We describe a renal transplant recipient with Acanthamoeba infection and review the literature. The patient presented with osteomyelitis and widespread cutaneous lesions. No causative organism was identified before death, despite multiple biopsies with detailed histological analysis and culture. Disseminated Acanthamoeba infection was diagnosed after death, when cysts were observed in histological examination of sections of skin from autopsy, and trophozoites were found in retrospectively reviewed skin biopsy and surgical bone specimens. In any immunosuppressed patient, skin and/or bone lesions that fail to show improvement with broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy should raise the suspicion for disseminated acanthamebiasis. Early recognition and treatment may improve clinical outcomes.
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3/13. September 2004: a 6-year-old girl with headache and stiff neck.

    Free-living amebas in the genera Naegleria, Acanthamoeba and Balamuthia are known to cause CNS infections. Here we report a case of fatal granulomatous amebic meningoencephalitis (GAE) caused by balamuthia mandrillaris in a 6-year-old previously healthy girl who presented with headache and stiff neck. She was treated medically for brain abscess after a CT scan identified a ring-enhancing lesion in the right temporo-parietal area. A brain biopsy showed necrosis and granulomatous inflammation. Subsequently, multiple new lesions appeared in the brain bilaterally. A second brain biopsy revealed viable amebic trophozoites that were most abundant in perivascular spaces, accompanied by neutrophils, macrophages and eosinophils. Immunofluorescence study confirmed the amoeba as balamuthia mandrillaris. This case demonstrates that making diagnosis of GAE pre-mortem requires a high index of suspicion. Amebic infection should be included in the differential diagnosis of any granulomatous lesion in CNS; and careful search for amebic parasites should be carried out especially when necrosis predominates in the pathological material.
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4/13. Acanthamoeba infection in lung transplantation: report of a case and review of the literature.

    A 49-year-old woman underwent bilateral lung transplantation for advanced idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. During the postoperative period she received immunosuppressive medications as well as corticosteroids. aspergillus fumigatus grew from a sputum sample, and she was treated with nebulized amphotericin. She was discharged on tacrolimus and prednisone. After initially doing well, she required re-hospitalization for treatment of cytomegalovirus and pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. She was treated with ganciclovir and cefepime and, after a 2-week hospitalization, was discharged. Seven months after transplantation she developed progressive sinusitis, treated with antibiotics and sinus debridement surgery. Aspergillus organisms were recovered and, at the periphery of the tangled masses of Aspergillus hyphae, numerous amebic cysts were also identified, which were morphologically consistent with Acanthamoeba spp. Subsequent electron microscopy and immunofluorescent staining confirmed this impression. She was initially treated with intravenous amphotericin, later changed to voriconazole and caspofungin. debridement of the sinuses 3 weeks later revealed fungal hyphae but no amebae. Infections with Acanthamoeba have rarely been reported in lung transplantation but have been recognized in bone-marrow and renal transplant patients, and have been lethal in many cases, particularly in patients with immunosuppression due to human immunodeficiency virus infection. More recently, aggressive antimicrobial therapy has resulted in successful outcomes, as discussed herein.
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5/13. Immunopathology and electron microscopy of acanthamoeba keratitis.

    In order to evaluate the local cellular immune response to Acanthamoeba infection we performed immunohistochemical examinations of the corneal buttons of two patients with acanthamoeba keratitis. We found that the corneal stroma was infiltrated with polymorphonuclear leukocytes and HLA-DR positive macrophages that appeared to be stromal keratocytes by light microscopy. Despite the presence of chronic inflammation in both patients, no stromal lymphocytes were seen in one patient and a sparse lymphocytic infiltrate was seen in the other patient. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of macrophages, neutrophils, and Acanthamoeba organisms in these two patients.
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6/13. Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in nigeria (report of two cases in children).

    Two cases of PAME in children occurring during dusty harmattan period in Northern nigeria are reported. In the absence of history of swimming or any other water related sport, and as suggested in our two previous reports, a dustbone infection as an important route of infection in PAME in this area is stressed. A need to fully investigate any atypical case of meningitis and meningoencephalitis in this area is emphasised.
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7/13. osteomyelitis of a bone graft of the mandible with acanthamoeba castellanii infection.

    An ameloblastoma of the right side of the mandible was resected in a 32 year old prediabetic female. An iliac crest autograft became infected and a sequestrum was removed seven weeks later. Pathologic examination of this tissue demonstrated a mixed infection, including acanthamoeba castellanii. This is the first recorded instance of invasion of bone by a free living ameba.
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8/13. Disseminated acanthamebiasis in patients with AIDS. A report of five cases and a review of the literature.

    BACKGROUND: Acanthamoeba and Leptomyxida are free-living amebae that cause granulomatous amebic encephalitis, a rare, slowly progressive, fatal neurologic process seen in immunosuppressed hosts. In addition, these organisms produce disseminated cutaneous lesions and involve other organs, particularly in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). RESULTS: We report five cases of disseminated acanthamebiasis in patients with AIDS, each with cutaneous manifestations but lacking central nervous system involvement. The medial CD4 T-cell count was 0.024 x 10(9)/L. skin lesions included pustules, subcutaneous and deep dermal nodules, and ulcers, most often seen on the extremities and face. Histopathologically, both pustular and vasculitic changes were observed; in all cases, the microscopic identification of organisms was difficult because of the macrophagelike appearance of the microbes in routine sections. CONCLUSIONS: skin lesions are the most common reported presentation of infections caused by Acanthamoeba and Leptomyxida organisms in patients with AIDS, a minority of whom have central nervous system manifestations. A high index of suspicion is necessary for both the dermatologist and the dermatopathologist. prognosis is guarded, but early treatment using a combination of intravenous pentamidine and oral fluconazole, sulfadiazine, and flucytosine may be beneficial.
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9/13. Acanthamoeba meningoencephalitis after bone marrow transplantation.

    Two patients presented with fever and nodular pulmonary infiltrates 9 and 6 months after marrow transplantation for leukemia. The second patient also had painful subcutaneous nodules that subsequently ulcerated. Both had a history of sinusitis and both had recently been treated with corticosteroids. During treatment with antibacterial and antifungal antibiotics, they developed rapid mental deterioration, coma and/or seizures. CT findings included hydrocephalus with extensive cortical and periventricular hypodensities in the first patient, and hydrocephalus with a cerebellar hemorrhage and edema in the second patient. cerebrospinal fluid had a low glucose and elevated protein levels with few erythrocytes and little or no pleocytosis. Despite therapy with broad-spectrum antibiotics, including coverage for opportunistic infections, both patients died. autopsy revealed Acanthamoeba species causing necrotizing meningoencephalitis, pneumonitis and adrenalitis in the first patient and causing necrotizing meningoencephalitis and dermatitis in the second patient. While these are the only reported cases of disseminated Acanthamoeba infection in marrow transplant recipients, a review of the literature suggests that this organism may be a new cause of opportunistic infections.
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10/13. Amebic meningoencephalitis caused by balamuthia mandrillaris.

    Free-living amebae etiologically associated with central nervous system (CNS) infection in children have included Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, and recently, leptomyxid ameba. Two previously healthy children are reported with CNS infection caused by leptomyxid ameba, recently classified as balamuthia mandrillaris. One child, a 27-month-old boy, had right hemiparesis and aphasia, and the other, a 13-year-old girl, had headache, right hemiparesis, diplopia, and left facial weakness. cerebrospinal fluid studies of both children revealed a mononuclear pleocytosis and mildly elevated protein. The younger child developed seizures and progressive cerebrovascular occlusions; both developed hydrocephalus and coma progressing to death 16 days after onset of symptoms. The younger child at autopsy had necrotizing meningoencephalitis, left internal carotid arteritis, and amebic trophozoites and cysts in brain. Perivascular trophozoites were difficult to distinguish morphologically from macrophages in the older child, who had no cyst forms. Indirect immunofluorescence test revealed CNS infection with B. mandrillaris in both. This leptomyxid ameba, formerly considered an innocuous soil organism, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of progressive or atypical childhood stroke.
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