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1/440. Neuroradiologic findings in glutaric aciduria type II.

    The authors report a 3-year-old male with glutaric aciduria type II, whose magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed agenesis of the cerebellar vermis and hypoplastic temporal lobes. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the parietal white matter revealed a markedly increased choline/creatine ratio, suggesting a demyelinating process. Gas chromatographic analysis of urinary organic acids should be studied in any patient with agenesis of the cerebellar vermis and cystic renal disease to exclude glutaric aciduria type II.
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2/440. Sibling cases of chronic recurrent hepatocerebral disease with hypercitrullinemia.

    Two sibling cases with chronic recurrent hepato-cerebral syndrome which correspond to the nutritional form of hepato-cerebral disease entitled by Shikata et al. and the data of plasma free aminoacids analyses of these cases were reported. The one case is 27 years old male and the other case is 36 years old female. Their parents were cousins. Both cases have had unbalanced diet, especially liked legumes unusually. Their main symptom was recurrent disturbance of conciousness and convulsive seizures. Slight abnormality of liver function test and hyperammonemia were demonstrated. Electroencephalogram showed the pattern of triphasic wave. Coeliac angiography did not revealed a portal-systemic shunt. Hepatic biopsy specimen revealed liver fibrosis with fatty change in the one case and mild fatty change in the other case. Analyses of plasma free aminoacids showed particurally high level of citrulline in both cases. From the results of plasma free aminoacids analyses, it is considered that pathogenesis of these patients is congenital hereditary urea cycle disorders.
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3/440. Isovaleric acidemia with promyelocytic myeloproliferative syndrome.

    Isovaleric acidemia, an autosomal recessive disorder, is due to isovaleryl-coenzyme a dehydrogenase deficiency and is one of the branched-chain aminoacidopathies. Isovaleric acidemia may present in the neonatal period with an acute episode of severe metabolic acidosis, ketosis, and vomiting and may lead to coma and death in the first 2 months of life. This report concerns an infant who presented at 10 days of age because of lethargy, poor feeding, hypothermia, cholestasis, and thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and profound pancytopenia. death occurred at 19 days of age. autopsy showed mild fatty change in the liver and extramedullary hematopoiesis, generalized escherichia coli sepsis, and myelodysplasia of the bone marrow with arrest of the myeloid series at the promyelocytic stage. The appearance resembled promyelocytic leukemia, but the diagnostic 15:17 translocation was not present. The maturation arrest in granulopoiesis in isovaleric acidemia appears to be most likely due to a direct metabolic effect on granulocyte precursor cells.
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4/440. Feasibility of dna based methods for prenatal diagnosis and carrier detection of propionic acidaemia.

    Propionic acidaemia (PA) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by a genetic deficiency of propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC). Defects in the PCCA and PCCB genes that code for the alpha and beta subunits of PCC, respectively, are responsible for PA. A proband with PA was previously shown to carry the c1170insT mutation and the private L519P mutation in the PCCB gene. Here we report the prenatal diagnosis of an affected fetus based on dna analysis in chorionic villus tissue. We have also assessed the carrier status in this PCCB deficient family, which was not possible with biochemical analysis.
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5/440. 3-Methylglutaconic aciduria and hypermethioninaemia in a child with clinical and neuroradiological findings of leigh disease.

    We report on a child with a clinical and neuroradiological picture consistent with leigh disease and an unusual association of isolated hypermethioninaemia and 3-methylglutaconic aciduria. A low-methionine diet normalized both plasma methionine and urine 3-methylglutaconic acid; a methionine-loading test led to significant increase of both metabolites. In the skin fibroblasts the activity of 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase was essentially normal. No explanation of this uncommon association of hypermethioninaemia and glutaconic aciduria is available. The possibility of a common transporter for 3-methylglutaconic acid and methionine is an attractive hypothesis.
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6/440. Long-term follow up of a new case of hawkinsinuria.

    Hawkinsinuria is a rarely diagnosed autosomal dominantly transmitted inborn error of tyrosine metabolism with impaired conversion of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate to homogentisate. As a consequence of the defective 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxigenase activity, large amounts of the unusual, ninhydrin-positive amino acid hawkinsin and later on in life 4-hydroxycyclohexylacetic acid are formed and excreted. Clinically the disease is characterised mainly by chronic metabolic acidosis and severe growth retardation as a result of protein overload. As the ability to form 4-hydroxycyclohexylacetic acid and thereby to cope with the still not very well defined reactive and toxic intermediates increases, clinical symptoms vanish. We report here a new patient with hawkinsinuria having experienced a series of admissions because of unclear hepatopathy, growth retardation, and renal tubular acidosis. CONCLUSION: Prolonged tyrosyluria in the newborn and young baby should cause the clinical chemist not only to exclude tyrosinaemia, galactosaemia, and fructose intolerance but also to look carefully for hawkinsin in the aminoacid chromatogram.
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7/440. An adult-onset case of argininosuccinate synthetase deficiency presenting with atypical citrullinemia.

    A 52-year-old heavy drinker presented with repeated episodes of disturbance of consciousness and an increase in serum ammonia level, triggered by excessive alcohol intake. He was diagnosed as having adult-onset citrullinemia with deficiency of hepatic argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) activity. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed high-intensity lesions in the central pons and the bilateral middle cerebellar peduncles on T2-weighted images. Although almost all cases of adult-onset citrullinemia have been reported to be enzymologically classified as type II, the serum amino acid pattern and serum level of human pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor (hPSTI) were atypical for type II in the present case.
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ranking = 0.14285714285714
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8/440. Facial anomalies in D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria.

    D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria is a rare autosomal recessive organic aciduria with variable clinical expression. The biochemical defect is still unknown, and genetic heterogeneity has been suggested. Here, we report on facial anomalies in two unrelated cases of D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria presenting with epileptic encephalopathy. In a review, we found that minor facial anomalies have been mentioned in three patients. A flat face with a broad nasal bridge and external ear anomalies were present in our patients and in reported cases. We suggest giving consideration to D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria as a cause of minor facial anomalies in epileptic encephalopathy of unknown origin.
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ranking = 1.1428571428571
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9/440. Feasibility of prenatal diagnosis of lysinuric protein intolerance by linkage analysis: a case report.

    Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) is a rare autosomal recessive defect of cationic amino acid transport (CAA), relatively common in finland and italy. After weaning, LPI patients present poor feeding, vomiting and failure to thrive. A severe pulmonary complication and episodes of metabolic imbalance may lead to death. prenatal diagnosis has not been available due to lack of either biochemical or molecular markers to be used in the fetal period. The LPI locus has recently been assigned to chromosome 14q12, very close to the T-cell receptor alpha-chain (TCRA) locus. We carried out a prenatal diagnosis for LPI by linkage analysis in one LPI Italian family after CVS. For the haplotype analysis 11 dna markers from the LPI critical region were used (D14S742, D14S50, D14S283, five TCRA intragenic polymorphic sites, D14S990, MYH7 and D14S80). It was concluded that the haplotype analysis indicated that the fetus was healthy as he had inherited the two wild alleles of the LPI locus. After birth, the clearances of CAA were measured and found to be in the normal range, thus confirming the result of the prenatal diagnosis. The prenatal diagnosis of LPI can now be offered to families affected by LPI.
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10/440. Electroencephalographic findings in ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency.

    A 3-day-old infant presented with anorexia, irritability, hypotonia, and seizures. blood ammonia was 2115 micromol/L and amino and organic acid analyses were consistent with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency. liver biopsy confirmed only 1% enzyme activity. The patient was treated with hemodialysis. An electroencephalogram (EEG) revealed multifocal independent spike-and-sharp-wave discharges. After initial stabilization he was placed on a low-protein diet with citrulline and phenylbutyrate. Conjugating agents (arginine, sodium benzoate, and sodium phenylacetate) have been added during periods of metabolic decompensation. Although developmentally delayed, the patient has shown signs of clinical improvement and EEG activity has likewise improved with only mild background slowing and no evidence of epileptogenic activity at 4 years of age. A second infant presented at 3 days of age with a similar history, blood ammonia of 1382 micromol/L, and metabolic studies indicative of ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency. EEG showed multifocal independent ictal and interictal discharges. Electrographic abnormalities persisted despite lowering of blood ammonia with hemodialysis and conjugating agents. The patient continued to decline clinically and died on the 7th hospital day. EEG changes parallel the clinical course of ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency and may serve as an objective marker of the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions.
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