Cases reported "Amnesia, Retrograde"

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1/110. Recovery from anterograde and retrograde amnesia after percutaneous drainage of a cystic craniopharyngioma.

    A case is reported of a cystic craniopharyngioma involving the floor and walls of the third ventricle. Pronounced anterograde and retrograde amnesia were documented preoperatively by formal testing. Rapid improvement in both new learning capacity and remote memory occurred after percutaneous twist drill drainage of the cystic portion of the tumour. The relevance of these observations to the amnesic syndrome and its neuropathological basis is discussed. ( info)

2/110. Persistent kluver-bucy syndrome after bilateral thalamic infarction.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe a patient who exhibited a partial kluver-bucy syndrome after small bilateral ischemic lesions in the thalami. BACKGROUND: Previously reported patients with kluver-bucy syndrome had very large, mostly bilateral lesions in the limbic system and could not provide sufficient information about its anatomo-functional correlate. METHOD: Behavioral assessments and clinical examinations, including magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography, were conducted. RESULTS: The patient was severely amnestic, distractible, hyperoral, and affectively dyscontrolled, and she behaved socially inappropriately. magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral infarctions in the territories of both thalamoperforating arteries, and positron emission tomography revealed bilaterally decreased fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the anterior parts of the ventral thalami and, to a lesser extent, in the fronto-temporal cortices. CONCLUSIONS: This behavioral syndrome has not yet been reported with isolated diencephalic lesions, but it has been observed after bilateral temporal lobe lesions. The authors conjecture that this syndrome resulted from a disruption of the pathways connecting the dorsomedial thalami with the prefrontal cortices and with other limbic areas, systems essential for memory and the regulation of impulses and emotions. ( info)

3/110. Mnestic block syndrome.

    The case of a patient with largely preserved intelligence, but severe and persistent memory impairments is reported. FA, a 46-year-old patient with the diagnosis of prolonged depression was investigated repeatedly over a two year period with neuroradiological, neuropsychological, neuromonitoring and other methods. While no brain damage was detectable in FA, he manifested continued and severe anterograde and retrograde memory disorders together with an inhibition in his thinking processes. Otherwise, his intellectual capabilities were in the normal range, that is he was not pseudo-demented. Various approaches with drug treatment and psychotherapy failed to improve his condition. The condition is interpreted as 'mnestic block syndrome' and is considered to be related to an altered brain metabolism which may include changes in various transmitter and hormonal systems (GABA-agonists, glucocorticoids, acetylcholine). Whether depression contributes to this syndrome is uncertain from FA's cognitive performance, but may be a possibility. ( info)

4/110. Retrograde amnesia for world knowledge and preserved memory for autobiographic events. A case report.

    A patient (PC) with severe and chronic retrograde amnesia for world knowledge (tested with famous events and famous faces), but unimpaired autobiographical memory is described. The 64-year-old man had traumatic brain injury four years prior to the present evaluation. Current brain imaging showed principally damage involving the infero-lateral prefrontal and the lateral temporal regions of the left-hemisphere. PC was of average intelligence, had no depression and only minor language problems, but manifested some additional anterograde memory deficits and performed subaverage in various frontal lobe-sensitive tests. Patient PC represents one of the very few cases with a preserved retrograde episodic and an impaired retrograde knowledge system, showing a dissociation between preserved retrieval of autobiographical events and amnesia for nonpersonal famous events. It is hypothesized that the sparing of autobiographical memories can be linked to the integrity of the right frontal and temporo-polar cortices. ( info)

5/110. Temporally-specific retrograde amnesia in two cases of discrete bilateral hippocampal pathology.

    The role of the hippocampus in retrograde amnesia remains controversial and poorly understood. Two cases are reported of discrete bilateral hippocampal damage, one of which was a rare case of limbic encephalitis secondary to the human herpes virus 6. Detailed memory testing showed marked anterograde memory impairment, but only mild, temporally-limited retrograde amnesia that covered a period of several years in both autobiographical and factual knowledge domains. The absence of extensive retrograde amnesia in these two cases points to a time-limited role for the hippocampus in the retrieval of retrograde memories, and suggests that entorhinal, perirhinal, parahippocampal, or neocortical areas of the temporal lobe may be more critical than the hippocampus proper for long-term retrograde memory functioning. Our findings offer general support to theories of memory consolidation that propose a gradual transfer of memory from hippocampal to neocortical dependency. ( info)

6/110. Postencephalitic focal retrograde amnesia after bilateral anterior temporal lobe damage.

    BACKGROUND: Marked retrograde amnesia with no or almost no anterograde amnesia is rare. Recently, a combination of ventrolateral prefrontal and temporopolar cortical lesions has been suggested as the cause of such isolated or focal retrograde amnesia. It is also assumed that when the right-sided cortical structures are damaged, autobiographical episodic memories are affected. OBJECTIVE: To search for new anatomic substrates for focal retrograde amnesia. methods: We performed extensive neuropsychological tests and obtained detailed neuroimages on a 43-year-old woman who showed a severe, persistent retrograde amnesia but only a limited anterograde amnesia after probable herpes simplex encephalitis. RESULTS: Tests of autobiographical memory revealed that she had a memory loss extending back to her childhood for both semantics and incidents; however, the ability to recall specific episodes appeared much more severely impaired than the ability to recall factual information about her past. The patient also showed profound impairments in recalling public memories; however, her scores improved nearly to a control level on forced-choice recognition memory tasks, although the recall of memories for a decade just before her illness remained mildly impaired. MRI revealed focal pathologies in the temporal poles and the anterior parts of the inferotemporal lobes on both sides, predominantly on the left, with some extension to the anterior parts of the medial temporal lobes. There was additional damage to the left insular cortex and its surrounding structures but no evidence of frontal lobe damage on MRIs or cognitive tests. CONCLUSIONS: A profound retrograde amnesia may be produced by damage to the bilateral temporal poles and anterior inferotemporal lobes in the absence of frontal lobe pathologies, and a dense and persistent episodic old memory loss can arise even with a relatively small lesion in the right anterior temporal lobe if it is combined with extensive damage to the left. ( info)

7/110. Disproportionate retrograde amnesia in a patient with herpes simplex encephalitis.

    We describe a patient who developed a severe but temporally limited retrograde amnesia coupled with a relatively mild anterograde amnesia following herpes simplex encephalitis. The patient showed a profound retrograde amnesia for autobiographical events extending for about 10 years prior to the disease onset. Her knowledge about public events and famous persons was also impaired for this period. An MRI and SPECT demonstrated bilateral medial temporal pathology. This case represents a further instance of a relatively focal retrograde amnesia following brain damage. We review other reported cases with focal retrograde amnesia and consider theoretical and neuroanatomical accounts for the present case. Two factors may account for her amnesic patterns: a partial disruption of the store for premorbid binding codes (i.e., information that multimodal feature representations occurred synchronously); along with a relative preservation of the encoding process required to develop new synchronous codes. ( info)

8/110. Case study: bipolar disorder after head injury.

    A case of bipolar disorder subsequent to a mild head injury in a 15-year-old girl is reported. review of the literature indicates that this is an extremely rare outcome. Lack of adequate follow-up studies makes it difficult to accurately predict type and severity of psychiatric outcome. Assessment and management involves ongoing consideration of both organic and psychosocial factors even after initial negative investigations. ( info)

9/110. A SPECT study of the anatomy of transient global amnesia.

    This report describes single photon emission tomography (SPECT) evidence of transient, relative hypoperfusion of the right basal ganglia and left temporal lobe in a 60-year-old man studied during the acute phase of classical transient global amnesia (TGA). The findings are interpreted in the light of previous reports indicating that involvement of the right hemisphere or both cerebral hemispheres consistently predicts severe retrograde amnesia, in addition to the typical loss of anterograde memory observed during TGA. These deficits involving the right hemisphere and left temporal lobe may reflect disruption of circuits mediating episodic memory retrieval and memory encoding, respectively. ( info)

10/110. Profound amnesia after damage to the medial temporal lobe: A neuroanatomical and neuropsychological profile of patient E. P.

    E. P. became profoundly amnesic in 1992 after viral encephalitis, which damaged his medial temporal lobe bilaterally. Because of the rarity of such patients, we have performed a detailed neuroanatomical analysis of E. P.'s lesion using magnetic resonance imaging, and we have assessed his cognitive abilities with a wide range of neuropsychological tests. Finally, we have compared and contrasted the findings for E. P. with the noted amnesic patient H.M, whose surgical lesion is strikingly similar to E. P.'s lesion. ( info)
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