Cases reported "Amnesia"

Filter by keywords:



Filtering documents. Please wait...

1/33. limbic encephalitis and antibodies to Ma2: a paraneoplastic presentation of breast cancer.

    A patient with atypical medullary breast cancer is described who presented with symptoms of limbic encephalitis. The patient's serum and CSF contained antibodies that reacted with the nervous system and the tumour. These antibodies recognised Ma2, a neuronal protein related to paraneoplastic limbic and brainstem encephalitis in men with testicular tumours. This report highlights the importance of testing for paraneoplastic antineuronal antibodies in cases of unexplained limbic encephalitis and suggests screening for breast cancer in women with antibodies predominantly directed to Ma2.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = encephalitis
(Clic here for more details about this article)

2/33. When living things and other 'sensory quality' categories behave in the same fashion: a novel category specificity effect.

    In this study, the performance on semantic tests of five patients with a diagnosis of probable herpes simplex encephalitis was examined. Only one of the patients, MU, showed a marked category-specific deficit for living things, unlike the other patients. Results which closely mirrored those obtained with the category living things were found in each of the five patients for the other categories, edible substances, materials, and liquids, selected for a priori theoretical reasons. The processing of these additional categories was investigated with tasks involving naming abilities in different modalities, matching to sample, and questionnaires exploring the status of the patients' knowledge about the semantic features of both living things and exemplars of novel 'sensory quality' categories. MU showed in all tasks a comparable impairment for both living things and the other three new categories, in spite of a performance closely equivalent to that of the other four patients with man-made artefacts. This finding supports an explanation of MU's performance in terms of an impairment relating to categories highly dependent on the sensory quality of stimuli. In addition, his difficulty involved all aspects of the processing of the impaired categories.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.1432912513776
keywords = encephalitis, herpes
(Clic here for more details about this article)

3/33. Severe amnesia associated with human herpesvirus 6 encephalitis after bone marrow transplantation.

    BACKGROUND: Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) appears to have a predilection for immunocompromised patients and has been implicated as a cause of posttransplant encephalitis. However, the pathogenesis, as well as the appropriate means of diagnosis and treatment of HHV-6 encephalitis is unclear. METHOD: We describe a case of a 20-year-old male university student with anemia who presented with an acute, severe amnesia 1 month after bone marrow transplantation. His illness was subsequently attributed to HHV-6 encephalitis. RESULTS: cerebrospinal fluid analysis was consistent with encephalitis and polymerase chain reaction confirmed the presence of HHV-6 dna in both cerebrospinal fluid and serum. No other herpes virus particles were detected. MRI showed bilateral hippocampal involvement. Treatment with acyclovir resulted in a decrease in serum HHV-6 dna to undetectable levels, coincident with improvement of both memory and lesions on MRI. CONCLUSIONS: This case provides strong clinical and radiological evidence of the reversibility of this disease process and supports the recommendations for empiric treatment of post transplant patients with laboratory evidence of HHV-6 infection, culture or polymerase chain reaction, plus clinical symptoms compatible with HHV-6 infection.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1.1454617939799
keywords = encephalitis, herpes
(Clic here for more details about this article)

4/33. limbic encephalitis presenting with topographical disorientation and amnesia.

    A case of paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis presenting with topographical disorientation is reported. A 70 year old woman became unable to identify familiar buildings and landscapes and could not recall the way to destinations she had known very well for years. She also showed attentional disturbance and severe anterograde amnesia. Her retrograde amnesia extended for one year at most. No other neuropsychological deficits were noted. Thus her topographical disorientation was of the primary form. Specific tests related to topographical disorientation showed that her two main symptoms seem to fall into the categories of landscape agnosia and heading disorientation. T2 weighted magnetic resonance imaging revealed high intensity signals in the anteromedial temporal lobes bilaterally, in the right posterior parahippocampal gyrus, in the right retrosplenial region, and in the right inferior precuneus. Anti-Hu antibody was found in the serum. This case shows that topographical disorientation can be a primary symptom of limbic encephalitis.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.85714285714286
keywords = encephalitis
(Clic here for more details about this article)

5/33. Preserved ability to recognize keywords related to remote events in the absence of retrieval of relevant knowledge: a case of postencephalitic amnesia.

    We describe a case of severe anterograde and retrograde amnesia resulting from herpes simplex encephalitis. magnetic resonance imaging revealed pathological changes in the bilateral hippocampi, parahippocampal gyri, fusiform gyri, medial temporal poles, posterior part of the cingulate gyri, and insula. The patient showed severe amnesia for autobiographical episodic memory in relation to events that had occurred throughout her life, but temporally graded amnesia for autobiographical semantic memory, and severe amnesia without a temporal gradient for public events and famous people. However, using a multiple-choice method, she showed a high level of accuracy when choosing keywords related to public or personal events, although this did not prompt her recollection of the events. An important indication of these results is that, even with severe retrograde amnesia, memories of past events are not completely lost. We propose that an event may be stored in a fragmented form, consisting of many components, and that normal recall of an event may require recombination or reconstruction of these components.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.1432912513776
keywords = encephalitis, herpes
(Clic here for more details about this article)

6/33. potassium channel antibody-associated encephalopathy: a potentially immunotherapy-responsive form of limbic encephalitis.

    patients presenting with subacute amnesia are frequently seen in acute neurological practice. Amongst the differential diagnoses, herpes simplex encephalitis, Korsakoff's syndrome and limbic encephalitis should be considered. limbic encephalitis is typically a paraneoplastic syndrome with a poor prognosis; thus, identifying those patients with potentially reversible symptoms is important. Voltage-gated potassium channel antibodies (VGKC-Ab) have recently been reported in three cases of reversible limbic encephalitis. Here we review the clinical, immunological and neuropsychological features of 10 patients (nine male, one female; age range 44-79 years), eight of whom were identified in two centres over a period of 15 months. The patients presented with 1-52 week histories of memory loss, confusion and seizures. Low plasma sodium concentrations, initially resistant to treatment, were present in eight out of 10. brain MRI at onset showed signal change in the medial temporal lobes in eight out of 10 cases. Paraneoplastic antibodies were negative, but VGKC-Ab ranged from 450 to 5128 pM (neurological and healthy controls <100 pM). CSF oligoclonal bands were found in only one, but bands matched with those in the serum were found in six other patients. VGKC-Abs in the CSF, tested in five individuals, varied between <1 and 10% of serum values. Only one patient had neuromyotonia, which was excluded by electromyography in seven of the others. Formal neuropsychology testing showed severe and global impairment of memory, with sparing of general intellect in all but two patients, and of nominal functions in all but one. Variable regimes of steroids, plasma exchange and intravenous immunoglobulin were associated with variable falls in serum VGKC-Abs, to values between 2 and 88% of the initial values, together with marked improvement of neuropsychological functioning in six patients, slight improvement in three and none in one. The improvement in neuropsychological functioning in seven patients correlated broadly with the fall in antibodies. However, varying degrees of cerebral atrophy and residual cognitive impairment were common. Over the same period, only one paraneoplastic case of limbic encephalitis was identified between the two main centres. Thus, VGKC-Ab-associated encephalopathy is a relatively common form of autoimmune, non-paraneoplastic, potentially treatable encephalitis that can be diagnosed by a serological test. Establishing the frequency of this new syndrome, the full range of clinical presentations and means of early recognition, and optimal immunotherapy, should now be the aim.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1.4290055370919
keywords = encephalitis, herpes
(Clic here for more details about this article)

7/33. Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis: ovarian cancer presenting as an amnesic syndrome.

    BACKGROUND: Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis (PLE) is a rare neurologic manifestation of malignancy. Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis typically presents with short-term memory loss, seizures, or other limbic system abnormalities. The majority of PLE cases are associated with lung and testicular cancer. CASE: We present the first case of PLE attributable to an epithelial ovarian cancer. The 58-year-old woman presented with rapidly progressing short-term memory loss and amnesia. The diagnosis of ovarian cancer was suspected on the basis of computed tomography scan findings. The patient showed dramatic clinical improvement within 2 weeks of debulking surgery and after the initiation of plasmapheresis and chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis is a rare complication of ovarian tumors that is potentially reversible with prompt surgical management of the primary tumor, plasmapheresis, and chemotherapy.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = encephalitis
(Clic here for more details about this article)

8/33. Successful thyrotropin-releasing hormone therapy for emotional incontinence and amnesia resulting from mumps encephalitis.

    A healthy 7-year-old girl developed emotional incontinence and amnesia associated with mumps encephalitis. Her neurologic findings markedly improved after treatment of daily injection of thyrotropin-releasing hormone tartrate without any adverse effects. Although magnetic resonance imaging revealed no abnormal findings, the findings of Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime single photon emission computed tomography demonstrated abnormality of left temporooccipital area thought to be responsible for her symptoms.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.71428571428571
keywords = encephalitis
(Clic here for more details about this article)

9/33. The dissociation of anterograde and retrograde amnesia in a patient with herpes encephalitis.

    Establishing the precise relationship between anterograde amnesia (AA) and retrograde amnesia (RA) has implications for psychological and neuroanatomical models of memory. Many patients have been described who demonstrate AA in conjunction with RA or who demonstrate AA with little, or no apparent, RA. Intact anterograde memory in conjunction with deficits on tasks of retrograde memory is rarely encountered. In this paper, we describe a young female patient (LD) whose RA is extremely severe when contrasted with her mild to moderate deficits on tasks of verbal anterograde memory. In addition, on tests of episodic and semantic autobiographical memory, LD appeared more impaired in her recall of specific episodes than of factual information about her past. The importance of this dissociation in RA for the episodic-semantic distinction and the possible role of visual imagery in recalling remote episodic events are discussed.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.57316500551039
keywords = encephalitis, herpes
(Clic here for more details about this article)

10/33. FDG-PET and MRI in potassium channel antibody-associated non-paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis: correlation with clinical course and neuropsychology.

    OBJECTIVES: We report a patient with potassium channel antibody-associated non-paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis (NPLE) in whom repeated fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are correlated with epileptic activity and memory performance during the course of disease. CASE SUMMARY: A 32-year-old woman suffered from prolonged global amnesia after two generalized tonic-clonic seizures due to NPLE. Initially, MRI showed swelling of the left hippocampus. In FDG-PET, however, bitemporomesial hypermetabolism was seen corresponding to frequent bitemporal independent seizure patterns. Also neuropsychological impairments pointed to a bitemporal involvement at this early stage. In parallel with improved control of electrographic seizure patterns, improvement was seen in FDG-PET and in memory performance. During the whole course, MRI showed only left-sided abnormalities, which correlated with a permanent verbal memory impairment. CONCLUSION: FDG-PET was more sensitive in showing the initial bitemporal involvement and correlated well with EEG findings and neuropsychological impairment in the acute phase of disease. In contrast, structural MRI better reflected persistent neuropsychological deficits.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.71428571428571
keywords = encephalitis
(Clic here for more details about this article)
| Next ->


Leave a message about 'Amnesia'


We do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. Click here for the full disclaimer.