Cases reported "Amnesia"

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1/30. A fugue-like state associated with diazepam use.

    diazepam is a long-acting benzodiazepine. Although diazepam is commonly associated with a variety of side effects, it is generally not believed to cause fugue-like states or retrograde amnesia. This report presents the case of an active duty patient who developed a brief fugue-like state with retrograde amnesia. This was associated with the short-term oral use of diazepam. There was no other apparent cause for his symptoms, which resolved within 24 hours after the diazepam was discontinued. This case suggests that short-term use of diazepam can lead to a brief fugue-like state with retrograde amnesia that has not been reported previously.
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ranking = 1
keywords = fugue
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2/30. Transient global amnesia associated with cardiac arrhythmia and digitalis intoxication.

    A 54-year-old woman with transient global amnesia (TGA) was found to have digitalis-induced bradyarrhythmia with atrioventricular dissociation. The amnesia cleared only upon resolution of the arrhythmia. Cardiac arrhythmia has been postulated as a cause, but TGA in the setting of cardiac arrhythmia has not been documented previously. Cardiac arrhythmia should be excluded in patients with TGA, and TGA, a syndrome diagnosed on clinical grounds alone, must be recognized as one possible manifestation of treatable, potentially serious cardiac or cerebrovascular disease.
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ranking = 0.013425101300914
keywords = dissociation
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3/30. A case of amnesia at an early age.

    A dissociation between short- and long-term memory (LTM) and between the episodic and the semantic component of LTM is reported in a young girl who became amnesic at the age of 6 after an episode of acute encephalopathy resulting in bilateral frontal, insular, thalamic, ponto-mesencephalic, hippocampal and temporal lesions, as documented by MRI. The girl became amnesic a few months after starting school. A follow-up investigation showed that she was able to learn to read, write and acquire number facts and procedures and to improve her semantic knowledge. Our results show that the features of adult amnesia can also be found in children and that new semantic knowledge can be acquired in spite of an anterograde memory deficit. This dissociation does not agree with theories viewing long-term declarative memory as a unitary process mediated by the hippocampal system, but supports recent hypotheses that the acquisition of semantic knowledge is independent from episodic memory processes, and takes place through spared cortical regions subjacent to the hippocampi (Vargha-Khadem et al., 1997).
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ranking = 0.026850202601829
keywords = dissociation
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4/30. Preservation of autobiographical memory in a case of pure progressive amnesia.

    G.D., a 79 year-old female, presents with a severe and slowly progressive amnesia although she remains entirely independent in daily life and is perfectly well spatially oriented. Her amnesia is relatively isolated and her deficit does not embrace other cognitive domains. G.D. underwent extensive neuropsychological evaluation including language, executive functions, perceptual, and memory tests. Based on clinical observation, the purpose of this study was to determine whether there was a dissociation between her autobiographical and semantic memory. Results point out a severely degraded semantic knowledge of famous public events and persons while autobiographical memory of personally experienced and relevant information remains intact. Results from this study and from previous studies seem to suggest that relative sparing of hippocampal structures may be related to the preservation of autobiographical memory.
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ranking = 0.013425101300914
keywords = dissociation
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5/30. Developmental amnesia: a new pattern of dissociation with intact episodic memory.

    A case of developmental amnesia is reported for a child, CL, of normal intelligence, who has intact episodic memory but impaired semantic memory for both semantic knowledge of facts and semantic knowledge of words, including general world knowledge, knowledge of word meanings and superordinate knowledge of words. In contrast to the deficits in semantic memory, there are no impairments in episodic memory for verbal or visual material, assessed by recall or recognition. Lexical decision was also intact, indicating impairment in semantic knowledge of vocabulary rather than absence of lexical representations. The case forms a double dissociation to the cases of Vargha-Khadem et al. [science 277 (1997) 376; Episodic memory: new directions in research (2002) 153]; Gadian et al. [brain 123 (2000) 499] for whom semantic memory was intact but episodic memory was impaired. This double dissociation suggests that semantic memory and episodic memory have the capacity to develop separately and supports models of modularity within memory development and a functional architecture for the developmental disorders within which there is residual normality rather than pervasive abnormality. knowledge of arithmetical facts is also spared for CL, consistent with adult studies arguing for numeracy knowledge distinct from other semantics. reading was characterised by difficulty with irregular words and homophones but intact reading of nonwords. CL has surface dyslexia with poor lexico-semantic reading skills but good phonological reading skills. The case was identified following screening from a population of normal schoolchildren suggesting that developmental amnesias may be more pervasive than has been recognised previously.
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ranking = 0.080550607805487
keywords = dissociation
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6/30. The dissociation of anterograde and retrograde amnesia in a patient with herpes encephalitis.

    Establishing the precise relationship between anterograde amnesia (AA) and retrograde amnesia (RA) has implications for psychological and neuroanatomical models of memory. Many patients have been described who demonstrate AA in conjunction with RA or who demonstrate AA with little, or no apparent, RA. Intact anterograde memory in conjunction with deficits on tasks of retrograde memory is rarely encountered. In this paper, we describe a young female patient (LD) whose RA is extremely severe when contrasted with her mild to moderate deficits on tasks of verbal anterograde memory. In addition, on tests of episodic and semantic autobiographical memory, LD appeared more impaired in her recall of specific episodes than of factual information about her past. The importance of this dissociation in RA for the episodic-semantic distinction and the possible role of visual imagery in recalling remote episodic events are discussed.
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ranking = 0.067125506504572
keywords = dissociation
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7/30. Dissociation between recall and recognition memory performance in an amnesic patient with hippocampal damage following carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Some patients with relatively selective hippocampal damage have shown proportionate recall and recognition deficits. Moreover, familiarity as well as recollection have been found to be impaired in some of these patients. In contrast, other patients with apparently similar damage presented with relatively preserved recognition despite having severely impaired recall, and some of these patients have been shown to have preserved familiarity. We report here the case of an amnesic patient who suffered bilateral hippocampal damage and temporoparietal atrophy after carbon monoxide poisoning. On tests matched for difficulty, his recall performance was more severely impaired than his recognition memory, for verbal as well as for visual materials. Moreover, he performed within the range of healthy matched subjects on nine recognition tests out of ten. In a task using the process dissociation procedure, the patient's familiarity was preserved although his recollection was impaired. These findings indicate that recall and recognition memory can be dissociated in amnesic patients with hippocampal lesions even when temporoparietal cortical atrophy is also present.
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ranking = 0.013425101300914
keywords = dissociation
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8/30. Working memory and semantic involvement in sentence processing: a case of pure progressive amnesia.

    ED, a 83-year-old woman, meets the criteria of pure progressive amnesia, with gradual impairment of episodic and autobiographical memory, sparing of semantic processing and strong working memory (WM) deficit. The dissociation between disturbed WM and spared semantic processing permitted testing the role of WM in processing anaphors like pronouns or repeated names. Results showed a globally normal anaphoric behavior in two experiments requiring anaphoric processing in sentence production and comprehension. We suggest that preserved semantic processing in ED would have compensated for working memory deficit in anaphoric processing.
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ranking = 0.013425101300914
keywords = dissociation
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9/30. amnesia in relation to fugue states--distinguishing a neurological from a psychogenic basis.

    A case of transient amnesia is described in which a patient reported memory loss for five days, during which he had wandered extensively. Analysis showed that he did not have selective amnesia for the public events which had occurred during the five days for which he professed memory loss. This finding was incompatible with our case having a neurologically based global memory disorder during the fugue state. These findings offer support for a distinction between personal and public episodic memory.
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ranking = 0.71428571428571
keywords = fugue
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10/30. Anterograde amnesia with fornix damage following removal of IIIrd ventricle colloid cyst.

    Two patients developed anterograde amnesia following the apparently uncomplicated transcallosal-transventricular removal of a colloid cyst. Damage to the fornical columns was demonstrated on CT and MRI scans, whilst other memory related structures were entirely normal. Longitudinal neuropsychological evaluation, over 12-24 months, has revealed a very similar pattern of deficit in the two cases: verbal memory has remained persistently impaired whilst nonverbal anterograde memory has improved to some degree. Formal tests of remote public (famous faces and events) and personal autobiographical memory have supported the clinical impression that neither patient has a temporally extensive retrograde amnesia. These findings address the role of the fornix, and the dissociation of memory processes in humans.
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ranking = 0.013425101300914
keywords = dissociation
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