Cases reported "Amnesia"

Filter by keywords:



Filtering documents. Please wait...

1/23. Naming people ignoring semantics in a patient with left frontal damage.

    Studies about proper name anomia generally assume that persons' names are harder to recall than other semantic information one knows about them and that name retrieval is not possible without biographical knowledge. We describe a patient, SB, who, after a left frontal haemorrhage, was unable to recall any biographical information about people she could name. Moreover, she had a normal score in an Object Picture Naming Test, but gave confabulatory answers in a Semantic Questionnaire involving the same items. The role of frontal function in producing this pattern of impairment is discussed, together with the possible existence of a direct route from visual perception to proper name retrieval.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = perception
(Clic here for more details about this article)

2/23. Medial temporal lobe amnesia: a case study for nursing.

    Maintaining and enhancing cognitive function is a crucial but challenging intervention for patients with memory problems. research on the medial temporal lobe (MTL) memory system has yielded much information that can guide nurses in planning, evaluating, and performing effective interventions. A patient, Mrs. N, with a diagnosis of anaplastic astrocytoma of the left medial temporal lobe provides an example. Information from research guides assessment of Mrs. N and affords development of specific patient-centered interventions to maintain function, cope, and compensate. Data have been gathered from the patient, relatives, and caregivers to compare with and augment existing research, because few nursing case studies of amnesia involving patients with left medial temporal lobe tumors are available for analysis.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.2052754496369
keywords = research
(Clic here for more details about this article)

3/23. Executive amnesia in a patient with pre-frontal damage due to a gunshot wound.

    This paper reports the case of a young patient with extensive pre-frontal damage in whom we tested the hypothesis that intensive training improves executive performance as assessed by the wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). As long as her declarative memory, complex perceptual abilities and global cognitive status were spared, we surmised that any deficit in executive learning would have occurred in relative isolation. We showed that her abnormal performance on the WCST, both on the standard as well as on the post-instruction condition, was due to an impairment of shifting attention across perceptual dimensions (extra-dimensional). In contrast, her ability to shift attention within perceptual categories (intra-dimensional) was spared, as were her declarative memory, object and visuospatial perception, oral language comprehension and praxis (ideomotor, tool use and constructional). This case supports the hypothesis that executive amnesia is a type of amnesic disorder distinct from the classic amnesic syndrome due to mamillo-temporomedial damage. As such, it is probably closely related to procedural learning and may depend on the same fronto-subcortical loops that mediate the actual execution of behaviour.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = perception
(Clic here for more details about this article)

4/23. Transient epileptic amnesia: an under-diagnosed phenomenon? Three more cases.

    Three cases of patients with transient epileptic amnesia (also known as pure amnestic seizure) are described. In two patients it was the unique seizure type and represented de novo epilepsy occurring in the elderly. In the third patient it coexisted with long standing complex partial seizure of mesial temporal lobe origin. The problems associated with the diagnosis and the main clinical features are discussed. In addition the underlining pathophysiological mechanisms are considered. It is argued that this seizure type is likely to be under-diagnosed and that further research is needed as the presence of tea has significant implications for clinical and surgical management.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.10263772481845
keywords = research
(Clic here for more details about this article)

5/23. Transformations of consciousness. A cartography. I. The perception-hallucination continuum.

    Self-awareness emerges from the evolutionary transformation of material structures into magical, mythical and mental structures of consciousness. Western varieties of conscious states may be mapped on a perception-hallucination continuum of increasing ergotropic or hyper-arousal. These levels of subcortical arousal are cortically or cognitively interpreted as normal, creative, hyperhrenic, cataleptic and ecstatic states. During increasing hyper-arousal (characterized by EEG desynchronization): (1) the variability of the EEG amplitude decreases in introverts whereas in extroverts, it increases; (2) exteroception is transformed into an experience of interoception, while willed motor activity becomes increasingly impaired and ultimately inhibited, and (3) information processing during these hallucinatory states is preferentially shifted from the speech dominant and motor-coordinating or "major" toward the nonverbal, gestalt-perceiving, the non-dominant or "minor" cortical hemisphere.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 5
keywords = perception
(Clic here for more details about this article)

6/23. Positron emission tomographic study of post-ischaemic-hypoxic amnesia.

    BACKGROUND: Despite extensive research, it still remains controversial as to what the precise location of the critical lesions underlying amnesia actually is. The amnesic syndrome is believed to be heterogeneous and due to several distinct functional deficits. patients AND methods: Two patients, a 45-year-old woman and a 56-year-old man, with sudden cardiopulmonary arrest and successful resuscitation, were left with a clear amnesic syndrome as main neurological sequela. During their revalidation period, they underwent a positron emission tomographic (PET) examination, utilizing the (13)NH(3) bolus technique at rest and after intravenous acetazolamide administration. RESULTS: Both PET studies showed more or less similar features with a decrease in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the frontal, temporal and parietal lobes. In addition, the rCBF was increased in both thalami of the 45-year-old woman and in the striata of the 56-year-old man. acetazolamide vasoreactivity was most lost in the frontal lobes. CONCLUSIONS: In the present PET study, we demonstrated that destruction of the inhibitory pathways to the thalamus and basal ganglia by ischaemic-hypoxic frontal lesions could be one of the mechanisms leading to amnesia.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.10263772481845
keywords = research
(Clic here for more details about this article)

7/23. Developmental amnesia: a new pattern of dissociation with intact episodic memory.

    A case of developmental amnesia is reported for a child, CL, of normal intelligence, who has intact episodic memory but impaired semantic memory for both semantic knowledge of facts and semantic knowledge of words, including general world knowledge, knowledge of word meanings and superordinate knowledge of words. In contrast to the deficits in semantic memory, there are no impairments in episodic memory for verbal or visual material, assessed by recall or recognition. Lexical decision was also intact, indicating impairment in semantic knowledge of vocabulary rather than absence of lexical representations. The case forms a double dissociation to the cases of Vargha-Khadem et al. [science 277 (1997) 376; Episodic memory: new directions in research (2002) 153]; Gadian et al. [brain 123 (2000) 499] for whom semantic memory was intact but episodic memory was impaired. This double dissociation suggests that semantic memory and episodic memory have the capacity to develop separately and supports models of modularity within memory development and a functional architecture for the developmental disorders within which there is residual normality rather than pervasive abnormality. knowledge of arithmetical facts is also spared for CL, consistent with adult studies arguing for numeracy knowledge distinct from other semantics. reading was characterised by difficulty with irregular words and homophones but intact reading of nonwords. CL has surface dyslexia with poor lexico-semantic reading skills but good phonological reading skills. The case was identified following screening from a population of normal schoolchildren suggesting that developmental amnesias may be more pervasive than has been recognised previously.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.10263772481845
keywords = research
(Clic here for more details about this article)

8/23. amnesia for traumatic events among recent survivors: a pilot study.

    OBJECTIVE: Traumatic amnesia has been amply documented in the psychoanalytic literature but inconsistently in the research literature. METHOD: Six trauma were followed prospectively. survivors were interviewed 7, 30, and 120 days following the traumatic event. Each interview documented in detail their recollections of the day of their trauma. RESULTS: In four subjects who did not develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), we found brief, stable, and persistent memory gaps, which coincided with the moment of greatest emotional intensity. In two subjects who developed PTSD, we found, in addition to the previous form of amnesia, longer, progressive, and unstable memory gaps. DISCUSSION: Neurobiological research offers two explanatory mechanisms for the observations: A failure of acquisition of episodic memories may account for the stable deficits seen in all subjects. This could coincide with stress-induced malfunction of the hippocampal declarative memory system. A failure of spontaneous recall may account for the more extended traumatic amnesia that was observed in PTSD patients. This resembles the psychoanalytic description of repression. CONCLUSION: These preliminary findings suggest that brief, irreversible memory gaps are common in trauma survivors, whereas longer, progressive, and potentially reversible amnesia occurs among survivors who develop PTSD.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.2052754496369
keywords = research
(Clic here for more details about this article)

9/23. Functional ("psychogenic") amnesia.

    patients who present with severely impaired memory functioning without a discernable neurological cause typically have experienced one or more severely stressful life events. These patients, who are described as having "psychogenic" or "dissociative" amnesia, typically differ from patients with the neurologic amnestic syndrome in that memory for their personal life histories is much more severely affected than is their ability to learn and retain new information; that is, they have isolated retrograde amnesia. Recent cognitive and brain imaging research has begun to reveal some of the cerebral mechanisms underlying functional amnesia, but this disorder remains best conceptualized as a relatively rare form of illness-simulating behavior rather than a disease. Neuropsychological assessment is often useful in revealing the circumscribed nature of the patient's performance deficits, the spared functions that can be brought to bear in rehabilitation, and the emotional disorders requiring psychiatric treatment. Controlled treatment trials are nonexistent, but case reports suggest that supportive psychotherapy, systematic relaxation training, hypnosis, and sedative/anxiolytic medications are useful in facilitating recovery. These treatments are often combined with a psychoeducational approach that essentially reteaches the patient his or her life story.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.10263772481845
keywords = research
(Clic here for more details about this article)

10/23. Psychogenic and physiological sequelae to hypnosis: two case reports.

    Two cases of hypnotic sequelae occurring in a research context (with a non-clinical college population) are reported. Case 1 was a male who experienced retroactive amnesia following hypnosis: He was unable to recall familiar telephone numbers later that day. This was not a continuation of an earlier confusion or drowsiness (as is often found) since he indicated he was wide awake following hypnosis. Two parallels exist with previous reports: unpleasant childhood experiences with chemical anesthesia and a conflict involving a wish to experience hypnosis but a reluctance to relinquish control. Case 2 was a female who, while in hypnosis, experienced an apparent epileptic seizure that had characteristics of both petit mal and grand mal seizures. Although having a history of epilepsy, she had not had a seizure in 7 years. We suspect that the seizure was psychogenic and may have been triggered by wording used in the hypnotic scale or other similarities. Possible mechanisms are discussed and preventative recommendations are made.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.10263772481845
keywords = research
(Clic here for more details about this article)
| Next ->


Leave a message about 'Amnesia'


We do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. Click here for the full disclaimer.