Cases reported "Amnesia"

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1/4. An acute psychiatric episode following transvaginal oocyte retrieval.

    Psychological disorders of infertile patients are traditionally thought to be chronic, to advance gradually, and to be long-term problems. We describe a patient in whom an acute psychiatric episode developed immediately after transvaginal ultrasound-guided oocyte retrieval. A 34 year old women without history of psychiatric disturbance or adverse reaction to drugs suffered an acute psychiatric episode immediately after oocyte retrieval. She exhibited tachycardia, tachypnoea, transient hypertension and limb rigidity, as well as alterations to stupor and posture. Her vital signs stabilized and she opened her eyes 6 h later, but she persistently raised her head to the left and stared blankly without response to external stimuli. Nine hours later, she was able to look around but remained unresponsive to stimuli. aphasia was noted in the next morning and a wishful thinking of having delivered a baby was noted in the afternoon. memory loss was noted on the third day. The patient was diagnosed as having dissociative amnesia and was discharged after three courses of supportive psychotherapy. Assisted reproductive technology-related acute psychiatric episodes, which may initially mimic brainstem stroke, are rare; however, attention should be paid to high-risk patients, and they should be offered elective psychological counselling.
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2/4. Anterograde amnesia linked to benzodiazepines.

    benzodiazepines, shown to affect memory, can produce anterograde amnesia (i.e., a loss of memory for events occurring forward in time). Following the ingestion of a benzodiazepine, short-term memory is not affected, but long-term memory is impaired. The memory loss may occur because events are not transferred from short-term memory to long-term memory and thus not consolidated into memory storage. Information stored prior to the ingestion of a benzodiazepine is not affected. memory impairment is more likely in benzodiazepines that have a high benzodiazepine-receptor affinity, that accumulate in the body, that are given in high doses or intravenously, or that are eliminated slowly. Individuals taking benzodiazepines are often unaware of their memory impairment unless it is pointed out to them. Elderly clients experiencing memory impairment may be embarrassed to mention the problem. Alternatives to prescribing benzodiazepines include antidepressant medications, exercise or psychotherapy. When prescribing a benzodiazepine, it is important to fully inform patients of the drug's potential side effects and to maintain the lowest effective dose for the shortest period of time.
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3/4. Functional ("psychogenic") amnesia.

    patients who present with severely impaired memory functioning without a discernable neurological cause typically have experienced one or more severely stressful life events. These patients, who are described as having "psychogenic" or "dissociative" amnesia, typically differ from patients with the neurologic amnestic syndrome in that memory for their personal life histories is much more severely affected than is their ability to learn and retain new information; that is, they have isolated retrograde amnesia. Recent cognitive and brain imaging research has begun to reveal some of the cerebral mechanisms underlying functional amnesia, but this disorder remains best conceptualized as a relatively rare form of illness-simulating behavior rather than a disease. Neuropsychological assessment is often useful in revealing the circumscribed nature of the patient's performance deficits, the spared functions that can be brought to bear in rehabilitation, and the emotional disorders requiring psychiatric treatment. Controlled treatment trials are nonexistent, but case reports suggest that supportive psychotherapy, systematic relaxation training, hypnosis, and sedative/anxiolytic medications are useful in facilitating recovery. These treatments are often combined with a psychoeducational approach that essentially reteaches the patient his or her life story.
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4/4. Psychogenic amnesia.

    Psychogenic amnesia is a psychiatric disorder characterized by sudden loss of memory in the absence of organic lesion or disease. The disorder most frequently occurs in association with a severe stressor, such as a natural disaster or military conflict. To facilitate effective treatment and an accurate prognosis, psychogenic amnesia must be differentiated from amnesia of structural or pharmacologic origin. Treatment may involve supportive psychotherapy, behavioral modification or pharmacotherapy. prognosis for complete recovery is generally good.
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