Cases reported "Amyloid Neuropathies"

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1/69. Transthyretin Leu12Pro is associated with systemic, neuropathic and leptomeningeal amyloidosis.

    We report a middle-aged woman with a novel transthyretin (TTR) variant, Leu12Pro. She had extensive amyloid deposition in the leptomeninges and liver as well as the involvement of the heart and peripheral nervous system which characterizes familial amyloid polyneuropathy caused by variant TTR. Clinical features attributed to her leptomeningeal amyloid included radiculopathy, central hypoventilation, recurrent subarachnoid haemorrhage, depression, seizures and periods of decreased consciousness. MRI showed a marked enhancement throughout her meninges and ependyma, and TTR amyloid deposition was confirmed by meningeal biopsy. The simultaneous presence of extensive visceral amyloid and clinically significant deposits affecting both the peripheral and central nervous system extends the spectrum of amyloid-related disease associated with TTR mutations. The unusual association of severe peripheral neuropathy with symptoms of leptomeningeal amyloid indicates that leptomeningeal amyloidosis should be considered part of the syndrome of TTR-related familial amyloid polyneuropathy.
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ranking = 1
keywords = peripheral nervous system, neuropathy, peripheral neuropathy, peripheral, nervous system
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2/69. Progression of cardiomyopathy and neuropathy after liver transplantation in a patient with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy caused by tyrosine-77 transthyretin variant.

    Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy is an inherited form of amyloidosis associated with a mutant form of a protein called transthyretin. The methionine-30 variant is the most frequent mutation observed. This disorder is caused by deposition of this protein as amyloid in several organs, such as the heart, kidneys, and peripheral nervous system. The disease is always progressive and fatal, and patients die 7 to 10 years after the onset of symptoms. liver transplantation is at present the only choice for these patients because it provides improvement of symptoms and/or stops progression of the disease in most patients. We report the case of a patient who showed clear progression of cardiomyopathy and neuropathy after liver transplantation.
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ranking = 1.5487343144027
keywords = peripheral nervous system, neuropathy, peripheral, nervous system
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3/69. Multiple gastric polyps in familial amyloid polyneuropathy.

    Amyloid masses of the gastrointestinal tract are very rare. A previously undescribed finding of multiple gastric polyps due to systemic amyloidosis is outlined in a patient with familial amyloid polyneuropathy. The relevant literature pertaining to gastric amyloidosis and mucosal masses is reviewed. amyloidosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of target lesions in the stomach.
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ranking = 0.4540797215943
keywords = neuropathy
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4/69. Ocular amyloidosis and secondary glaucoma.

    OBJECTIVE: To report the clinical and histopathologic findings in two cases of secondary glaucoma associated with amyloidosis. DESIGN: Two case reports. methods: Retrospective review of clinical findings, course, and treatment of the two patients. The histopathologic findings from available biopsy material were also reviewed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: intraocular pressure (IOP), visual field changes, and surgical outcome. RESULTS: The first case describes a 76-year-old woman with orbital amyloidosis who developed gradual unilateral elevation of IOP that was poorly responsive to medical therapy and underwent filtration surgery. Episcleral venous pressure was elevated on the affected side, and histopathologic analysis of the conjunctival tissue confirmed perivascular amyloid deposits, further suggesting raised episcleral venous pressure to be a possible mechanism of glaucoma. The second case describes a 47-year-old white woman with familial amyloid neuropathy with a transthyretin cys-114 mutation. The association of glaucoma with this mutation has not been described previously. Persisting elevation of IOP in one eye was initially responsive to topical antiglaucoma medications but eventually required filtration surgery. Amyloid particles were found in the aqueous and on the lens surface. Histopathologic analysis of the aqueous and sclerectomy specimens demonstrated amyloid, suggesting outflow obstruction as a possible mechanism of glaucoma. Conjunctival buttonholing complicated filtration surgery in both cases, and the leaks eventually resolved with good control of IOP. CONCLUSIONS: Amyloid associated with glaucoma may involve different pathophysiologic mechanisms. The elevated IOP may not respond well to medical therapy. Cautious surgical manipulation of the conjunctiva is warranted in these cases.
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ranking = 0.090815944318859
keywords = neuropathy
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5/69. An aggressive familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy caused by a new variant transthyretin Lys 54.

    Histologic examination of sural nerve of a 32-year-old man with an aggressive polyneuropathy associated with autonomic failure demonstrated amyloid deposition, and familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) was diagnosed. Immunohistochemical staining showed transthyretin (TTR) staining of the amyloid deposits in nerve. Sequencing revealed G to A transition in the codon 54 causing TTR Lys 54. This is a new variant TTR associated with aggressive FAP.
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ranking = 0.54767780768697
keywords = neuropathy, nerve
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6/69. Two pairs of proven monozygotic twins discordant for familial amyloid neuropathy (FAP) TTR Met 30.

    Twin studies are an important tool in medical genetics for the evaluation of the relative roles of genetic and non-genetic factors in several diseases. Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy type I (FAP-I), TTR Met 30, was present in two sets of proven monozygotic (MZ) twins, one from Majorca and the other from portugal. Monozygosity was established by analysis of dna polymorphisms. Both pairs were discordant for age at onset and some clinical manifestations of FAP-I. We reviewed the differences in age at onset and clinical features in both sets and in two other pairs of presumed MZ twins with FAP-I and compared them with those in MZ twin pairs with other Mendelian disorders, such as neurofibromatosis type 1, Huntington's disease, facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy, and myotonic dystrophy. We conclude that, in addition to the postulated modifying genes, there must be a significant contribution from non-genetic factors to the phenotypic variability of FAP-I (age at onset and clinical expression), either because of environmental differences or stochastic events during (or after) the twinning process.
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ranking = 0.4540797215943
keywords = neuropathy
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7/69. A novel compound heterozygote (FAP ATTR Arg104His/ATTR Val30Met) with high serum transthyretin (TTR) and retinol binding protein (RBP) levels.

    A 64-year-old Japanese male suffering from very slowly progressive amyloidosis was studied by immunohistopathologic, mass spectrometric, and molecular genetic methods. After confirming the immunoreactivity of transthyretin (TTR) in the amyloid deposits using an anti-TTR polyclonal antibody, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI/TOF-MS) was employed to look for the presence of variant TTR(s) in the serum. Two variant forms of TTR, one with a molecular weight 32 Da greater and another with a molecular weight 19 Da less than that of normal TTR encoded by the two respective alleles, were detected in this patient. Direct sequence analysis confirmed the presence of a double substitution: one at codon 30 from GTG (Val) to ATG (Met) and the other at codon 104 from CGC (Arg) to CAC (His) in the two alleles. MALDI/TOF-MS of the parents of the proband revealed that his father was a heterozygote of ATTR Arg104His and his mother was a heterozygote of ATTR Val30Met. The total TTR and retinol binding protein (RBP) concentrations in the serum samples of the proband were very high compared with those of FAP ATTR Val30Met patients and control subjects. We report here a new compound heterozygote in the TTR gene with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP).
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ranking = 0.090815944318859
keywords = neuropathy
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8/69. A case of hereditary amyloidosis transthyretin variant Met 30 with amyloid cardiomyopathy, less polyneuropathy, and the presence of giant cells.

    Transthyretin-Met 30 (TTR-Met 30) is a variant of transthyretin and is usually associated with familial amyloid polyneuropathy. It is rare that patients with TTR-Met 30 will primarily develop amyloid cardiomyopathy. This report presents a patient with late-onset TTR-Met 30 who primarily developed amyloid cardiomyopathy, with less amyloid polyneuropathy in the peripheral nervous system than is usually seen. An autopsy was performed, and histological examination revealed many foreign-body giant cells and macrophages in the area of amyloid deposition that was found in nearly all of the organs.
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ranking = 1.1854705371272
keywords = peripheral nervous system, neuropathy, peripheral, nervous system
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9/69. Usefulness of MALDI/TOF mass spectrometry of immunoprecipitated serum variant transthyretin in the diagnosis of familial amyloid polyneuropathy.

    A matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight (MALDI/TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) system was used to detect variant transthyretin (TTR) in immunoprecipitated serum TTR molecules obtained from 6 patients with familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) who were already proven not to have ATTR Val30Met. This simple and quick method showed six different patterns of mass spectra of TTR-related immunoprecipitates from these patients, and in each patient the clearly identified characteristic doublet-shaped ion peaks consisted of normal and variant TTR apart from each other peak with a mass difference between them. dna sequencing confirmed that the patterns of variant TTR corresponded respectively to ATTR Val30Leu, ATTR Phe33Val, ATTR Asp38Ala, ATTR Ser50Arg, ATTR Ala97Gly and ATTR Ala97Ser. ATTR Asp38Ala and ATTR Ala97Ser are previously unknown variants of TTR leading to the development of FAP. ATTR Phe33Val was found in a Chinese FAP patient and ATTR Ala97Ser in a Taiwanese. serum analysis using immunoprecipitation and MALDI/TOF MS system can provide useful information when investigating FAP patients with diverse types of variant TTR.
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ranking = 0.4540797215943
keywords = neuropathy
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10/69. Amyloidoma in the gasserian ganglion: case report.

    BACKGROUND: Amyloidoma in the central nervous system is extremely rare. We describe a rare case of amyloidoma in the gasserian ganglion manifesting as trigeminal neuropathy. methods: A 41-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with progressive numbness and hypalgesia in the distribution of the second and third divisions of the left trigeminal nerve. There was no evidence of chronic inflammatory disorder or immunological abnormalities. Magnetic resonance images showed a mass in the left Meckel's cave that was brightly enhanced with gadolinium. RESULTS: A reddish, firm mass was successfully removed via a left temporal craniotomy. Histologically, the tumor was composed of larger acellular deposits of eosinophilic material. The acellular deposits were positive for potassium permanganate-resistant congo red staining, showing apple-green birefringence under polarized light and expression of immunoglobulin lambda light chain-derived proteins (A lambda) immunohistochemically. CONCLUSION: The present case revealed an A lambda amyloidoma in the left gasserian ganglion. Although the incidence is rare, amyloidoma should be suspected in patients who complain of progressive trigeminal neuropathies and show an enhanced lesion in the gasserian ganglion on MR images.
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ranking = 0.094904951113306
keywords = neuropathy, nervous system, nerve
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