Cases reported "Amyloidosis, Familial"

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1/4. Transthyretin mutation (TTRGly47Ala) associated with familial amyloid polyneuropathy in a French family.

    A French family in which three individuals had familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) was investigated. The proband presented cardiomyopathy with atrial arrhythmia and then developed axonal polyneuropathy, carpal tunnel syndrome, and sclerodactyly. Nucleotide sequencing of exons 2, 3 and 4 of the transthyretin (TTR) gene revealed heterozygosity for a single base change in the second position of codon 47. This G to C transversion predicts replacement of a glycine by an alanine at position 47 in the mature protein. This mutation (G47A) was previously identified in two different families of Italian origin both of which had FAP and cardiomyopathy. Here we report the first identification of this mutation in a non-Italian family.
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ranking = 1
keywords = neuropathy
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2/4. Mutant fibrinogen A-alpha-chain associated with hereditary renal amyloidosis and peripheral neuropathy.

    A middle age Portuguese woman was investigated for renal amyloidosis. She presented with progressive renal failure, proteinuria, hypertension, and sensory symptoms in the feet. Clinical and neurophysiological evaluation disclosed sensory-autonomic neuropathy. Cardiovascular tests and 123-MIBG investigation showed parasympathetic dysfunction and decrease of myocardial innervation, in accordance with small fiber neuropathy, as usually observed in amyloidosis. Immunohistochemical studies revealed AFib amyloidosis and genetic studies the amino acid exchange Glu526Val of the fibrinogen Aalpha-chain mutation, which was also present in one of her sons. The mutant gene in this patient was associated with the same haplotype as all other reported cases of Glu526Val mutations. This is the first reported AFibamyloidosis in portugal, and the first case of AFib in which sensory and autonomic nerve fiber dysfunction is described, indicating that small nerve fiber lesion can occur in the fibrinogen Aalpha chain mutation. This can be important for prognosis, in particular when liver transplantation is considered for treatment.
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ranking = 23.445695470401
keywords = peripheral neuropathy, peripheral, neuropathy, nerve
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3/4. cutis laxa in hereditary gelsolin amyloidosis.

    BACKGROUND: Hereditary gelsolin amyloidosis (AGel amyloidosis) is an age-associated systemic disease with global distribution, caused by a G654A or G654T gelsolin gene mutation. cutis laxa is a principal clinical manifestation of this disease. However, only few data on the dermatological involvement are available, and the pathogenesis of this amyloidosis-associated form of cutis laxa has remained unknown. OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the pathomechanism of this less well-known genodermatosis. methods: We performed systematic clinical, histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural skin biopsy studies in 12 patients with a G654A gelsolin gene mutation. For comparison, skin specimens from 10 control subjects were analysed. RESULTS: All patients had clinically characteristic cutis laxa, and frequently other signs of symptomatic skin disease such as increased fragility and risk for intracutaneous bleeding. All patients showed cutaneous deposition of gelsolin amyloid (AGel), mainly attached to basement membranes or basal laminae of various cutaneous structures, dermal nerves and blood vessel walls, and elastic fibres, particularly in the lower reticular dermis. AGel often encircled the elastic fibres, and colocalized with amyloid P component (AP), an elastic fibre microfibrillar sheath-associated protein. Fragmentation and loss of elastic fibres, epidermal atrophy, and reduction of dermal appendages were also common. antibodies to wild-type gelsolin bound to S-100-positive epidermal dendritic cells, a previously unrecognized immunoreaction. patients had fewer gelsolin-positive dendritic cells than controls. CONCLUSIONS: Widespread skin involvement with AGel deposition and elastic fibre involvement are essential pathological features in AGel amyloidosis, and contribute to the characteristic cutis laxa, dramatic in old age. Codistribution of AGel and AP, with demonstrated specific binding affinity for amyloid fibrils, suggests that elastic fibre-associated AP acts as a matrix for cutaneous amyloid deposition in AGel amyloidosis.
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ranking = 0.0043891710269827
keywords = nerve
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4/4. Cardiac conduction alterations in a French family with amyloidosis of the Finnish type with the p.Asp187Tyr mutation in the GSN gene.

    Familial amyloidosis of the Finnish type (FAF) is a rare autosomal-dominant disorder caused by the accumulation of a 71-amino acid amyloidogenic fragment of mutant gelsolin, an actin-modulating protein. The main symptoms include corneal lattice dystrophy, progressive cranial and peripheral neuropathy, and skin changes. To date, only two mutations in the GSN gene have been described: the p.Asp187Asn mutation in most patients and the p.Asp187Tyr mutation in a Danish and Czech family. We report on the third family with the p.Asp187Tyr mutation and the first French FAF family. Severe cardiac conduction alterations in three patients were mainly caused by cardiac sympathetic denervation. These findings demonstrate the cardiological involvement of the FAF phenotype and suggest that cardiological follow-up is required in FAF patients.
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ranking = 5.7758959487535
keywords = peripheral neuropathy, peripheral, neuropathy
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