Cases reported "Amyloidosis"

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1/268. Progression of cardiomyopathy and neuropathy after liver transplantation in a patient with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy caused by tyrosine-77 transthyretin variant.

    Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy is an inherited form of amyloidosis associated with a mutant form of a protein called transthyretin. The methionine-30 variant is the most frequent mutation observed. This disorder is caused by deposition of this protein as amyloid in several organs, such as the heart, kidneys, and peripheral nervous system. The disease is always progressive and fatal, and patients die 7 to 10 years after the onset of symptoms. liver transplantation is at present the only choice for these patients because it provides improvement of symptoms and/or stops progression of the disease in most patients. We report the case of a patient who showed clear progression of cardiomyopathy and neuropathy after liver transplantation.
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ranking = 1
keywords = peripheral, neuropathy, nervous system
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2/268. amyloidosis: recognition, confirmation, prognosis, and therapy.

    amyloidosis should be considered in any patient older than 40 years who has nephrotic syndrome, congestive heart failure (not on an ischemic basis), idiopathic peripheral neuropathy, or unexplained hepatomegaly. When a patient has one of these problems, immunoelectrophoresis and immunofixation of the serum and urine should be done for the detection of a monoclonal light chain. If a monoclonal light chain is found, a diagnosis usually can be established by amyloid stains performed on a bone marrow biopsy specimen or a subcutaneous fat aspirate. The presence or absence of cardiac involvement with amyloid is the most important prognostic factor. Treatment can range from observation to oral chemotherapy to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. A practical understanding of the mechanisms underlying this disease can lead to prompt diagnosis and early therapeutic intervention.
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ranking = 0.68193742702989
keywords = peripheral neuropathy, peripheral, neuropathy
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3/268. Rapid reversal of nephrotic syndrome due to primary systemic AL amyloidosis after VAD and subsequent high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell support.

    In a patient with nephrotic syndrome, renal biopsy revealed AL amyloid deposits. Monoclonal lambda light chains were identified in serum and urine. A low percentage of monoclonal plasma cells was detected in the bone marrow. The patient received four cycles of VAD and subsequent high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) with melphalan (200 mg/m2) followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. proteinuria rapidly diminished during chemotherapy. Three months after HDCT, the patient has no edema, and no signs of plasma cell dyscrasia are currently detectable. Using VAD before starting HDCT may improve the condition of patients with amyloidosis and reduce transplantation-related morbidity and mortality.
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ranking = 0.16086069836791
keywords = peripheral
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4/268. Ocular amyloidosis and secondary glaucoma.

    OBJECTIVE: To report the clinical and histopathologic findings in two cases of secondary glaucoma associated with amyloidosis. DESIGN: Two case reports. methods: Retrospective review of clinical findings, course, and treatment of the two patients. The histopathologic findings from available biopsy material were also reviewed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: intraocular pressure (IOP), visual field changes, and surgical outcome. RESULTS: The first case describes a 76-year-old woman with orbital amyloidosis who developed gradual unilateral elevation of IOP that was poorly responsive to medical therapy and underwent filtration surgery. Episcleral venous pressure was elevated on the affected side, and histopathologic analysis of the conjunctival tissue confirmed perivascular amyloid deposits, further suggesting raised episcleral venous pressure to be a possible mechanism of glaucoma. The second case describes a 47-year-old white woman with familial amyloid neuropathy with a transthyretin cys-114 mutation. The association of glaucoma with this mutation has not been described previously. Persisting elevation of IOP in one eye was initially responsive to topical antiglaucoma medications but eventually required filtration surgery. Amyloid particles were found in the aqueous and on the lens surface. Histopathologic analysis of the aqueous and sclerectomy specimens demonstrated amyloid, suggesting outflow obstruction as a possible mechanism of glaucoma. Conjunctival buttonholing complicated filtration surgery in both cases, and the leaks eventually resolved with good control of IOP. CONCLUSIONS: Amyloid associated with glaucoma may involve different pathophysiologic mechanisms. The elevated IOP may not respond well to medical therapy. Cautious surgical manipulation of the conjunctiva is warranted in these cases.
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ranking = 0.082692050008838
keywords = neuropathy
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5/268. Transthyretin amyloidosis and superficial siderosis of the CNS.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe a previously unreported clinical and radiologic presentation of hereditary transthyretin (TTR)-related amyloidosis. BACKGROUND: Unexplained cerebellar ataxia, pyramidal syndrome, and hearing loss are observed in some patients with TTR-related amyloidoses. methods: We performed clinical, radiologic, and pathologic examinations of three family members with TTR-related (Ala36Pro) amyloidosis. RESULTS: The patient was a 69-year-old woman with vitreal amyloid deposits, progressive sensorineural deafness, cerebellar ataxia, pyramidal syndrome, and recurrent transient neurologic symptoms. Cranial MRI showed symmetric thin rims of low signal intensity in T2- and T2*-weighted images in the cortex of the sylvian fissures, of the cerebellar hemispheres and vermis, and in the quadrigeminal plate consistent with superficial siderosis of the CNS. Her older daughter had vitreal amyloid deposits, acute brown-sequard syndrome at C4, acute sensorineural deafness, and recurrent transient neurologic symptoms. Cranial MRI at age 48 revealed a rim of low signal intensity in T2- and T2*-weighted images in the superior vermis folia and the right sylvian cortex. In addition, two small hemosiderin deposits were seen in the left parietal cortex. Lumbar puncture yielded colorless CSF with increased ferritin content and was followed by fourth ventricle hemorrhage. Cranial MRI 11 months later showed progression of brain hemosiderin deposits. The younger daughter had vitreal deposits, sensorimotor polyneuropathy, and acute sensorineural hearing but no evidence of siderosis on cranial MRI. She died at age 43 years of posterior fossa subarachnoid hemorrhage, and the neuropathologic examination showed amyloid deposition in the leptomeningeal spaces and vessels. CONCLUSION: Transthyretin-related amyloidosis may cause superficial siderosis of the CNS through subarachnoid bleeding related to meningovascular amyloid deposition.
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ranking = 0.082692050008838
keywords = neuropathy
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6/268. Shedding of peripheral cytoplasm - a mechanism of liver cell atrophy in human amyloidosis.

    A liver biopsy specimen from a case of primary amyloidosis was investigated by electron microscopy. The cytoplasmic periphery of the hepatocytes showed degenerativechanges which are interpreted as indicating shedding of peripheral parts of the cytoplasm. Two main variants of this process could be discerned: 1) Protrusion and sequestration of hernia-like blebs of cytoplasm, and 2) shedding of vesicles derived from degenerated endoplasmic reticulum. In the latter case transient defects of the plasma membrane seem to be relevance. endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasmic ground substance appeared to be shed preferentially, whereas mitochondria are retained within the cell. As a consequence the fractional volume of the mitochondria in the cytoplasm of atrophic cells is markedly increased. Shedding of peripheral cytoplasm, therefore, seems to be an effective mechanism enabeling the cell to adapt the mass and the composition of its cytoplasm to an unfavourable environment.
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ranking = 0.96516419020747
keywords = peripheral
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7/268. pupil abnormality in amyloidosis with autonomic neuropathy.

    darkness pupil diameters, light reflexes, and redilatation times have been recorded with infrared TV pupillometry in 12 consecutive patients with systemic amyloidosis associated with sensory motor and autonomic neuropathy. Nine of the patients had AL amyloidosis, two had familial amyloidosis associated with a transthyretin abnormality, and one was untyped. The pupils were abnormal in all 12 patients. On the basis of redilatation lag without pupillotonia, six patients had bilateral Horner's syndrome and in one of them amyloid deposits were found in a sympathetic ganglion and in the attached sympathetic chain obtained at necropsy. Four patients had bilateral tonic pupils with light-near dissociation and two had abnormally small pupils with reduced light reactions which could not be characterised. It seems that in patients with systemic amyloidosis generalised autonomic neuropathy is strongly associated with pupil abnormality as shown by tonic reactions with light-near dissociation, by redilatation lag, or by reduced size in darkness.
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ranking = 0.49615230005303
keywords = neuropathy
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8/268. A case of hereditary amyloidosis transthyretin variant Met 30 with amyloid cardiomyopathy, less polyneuropathy, and the presence of giant cells.

    Transthyretin-Met 30 (TTR-Met 30) is a variant of transthyretin and is usually associated with familial amyloid polyneuropathy. It is rare that patients with TTR-Met 30 will primarily develop amyloid cardiomyopathy. This report presents a patient with late-onset TTR-Met 30 who primarily developed amyloid cardiomyopathy, with less amyloid polyneuropathy in the peripheral nervous system than is usually seen. An autopsy was performed, and histological examination revealed many foreign-body giant cells and macrophages in the area of amyloid deposition that was found in nearly all of the organs.
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ranking = 0.66923179996465
keywords = peripheral, neuropathy, nervous system
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9/268. Encephalopathy complicating high-dose melphalan.

    High-dose melphalan (HDM) with peripheral blood stem cell transplant (PBSCT) is a common treatment for patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and more recently also with AL amyloidosis (ALA). We report two female patients with severe renal failure who underwent treatment with HDM for MM (patient 1) and ALA (patient 2). Both patients developed severe encephalopathy with generalised tonic-clonic seizures and a glasgow coma scale (GCS) of 3/15. Causes for coma such as infections, metabolic disturbances, cerebral ischaemia or haemorrhage were excluded. Patient 1 died on day 25 post transplant while comatose. Patient 2 recovered from her comatose state 18 days after transplantation. To our knowledge this is the first report on a possible role of high-dose melphalan in the development of encephalopathy.
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ranking = 0.16086069836791
keywords = peripheral
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10/268. Hemorrhagic lymphadenopathy as a presenting feature of primary al amyloidosis.

    Lymphadenopathy associated with hemorrhage as a presenting feature of primary (AL) amyloidosis has not previously been described. We report two such cases one of whom had an acquired factor x and IX deficiency. The clinical presentations were characterized by sudden spontaneous enlargement of lymph nodes followed by partial regression. In both cases significant delay in diagnosis, and hence treatment, occurred due to the mode of presentation. One patient died with rapidly progressive disease but the other has had an excellent response to therapy with high-dose melphalan (HDM, 200 mg/m2) and peripheral blood stem cell rescue. AL amyloid should be considered in all patients presenting with hemorrhagic lymphadenopathy.
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ranking = 0.16086069836791
keywords = peripheral
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