Cases reported "anaplasia"

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1/61. Primary cutaneous Ki-1(CD30) positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma in childhood.

    Primary cutaneous Ki-1(CD30) positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is an unusual tumor in the pediatric population. However, the nodal-based form of the disease compared with other histologic subsets of childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) more frequently involves skin, soft tissue, and bone. The objective of this article is to determine the histologic and immunologic characteristics of childhood primary cutaneous Ki-1(CD30) positive ALCL and its prognosis. The clinical data, histologic features and immunohistochemical profiles of skin biopsy specimens from 3 children with cutaneous Ki-1(CD30) positive lymphoma were reviewed. A literature search was performed and disclosed information on 5 childhood cases. The 3 patients with primary cutaneous Ki-1(CD30) positive ALCL all presented similarly as rapidly growing masses initially and clinically believed to be infectious/reactive processes. The diagnosis was established on the basis of histopathologic examination and immunohistochemical studies. Histologic sections revealed an extensive infiltrate of tumor cells extending throughout the entire dermis into the subcutaneous fat with frank ulceration in 1 patient. No significant epidermotropism was noted. Tumor cells exhibited striking cellular pleomorphism and a high mitotic rate with numerous atypical mitoses. Inflammatory cells were present in all patients. The tumor cells stained positively for Ki-1 antigen (CD30), epithelial membrane antigen, and for T-cell markers (UCHL-1, CD3). One of 3 cases, however, failed to stain for leukocyte common antigen (LCA). No clinically apparent adenopathy was observed in any of the patients. In all instances the patients developed recurrent disease in the skin at sites separate from the primary location. None of the patients demonstrated any involvement of lymph nodes, bone marrow, or other organ systems. All patients were treated with chemotherapy with good response. Primary cutaneous Ki-1(CD30) positive lymphoma is rare in children and is characterized by recurrences. The prognosis seems to be favorable. ( info)

2/61. Intraparenchymal meningioma originating from underlying meningioangiomatosis. Case report and review of the literature.

    The authors present the case of a 20-year-old woman with right-sided temporal intraparenchymal meningioma originating from underlying meningioangiomatosis. The patient manifested temporal-type seizures as the initial symptom. She had no stigmata of neurofibromatosis Type 2. Neuroradiological studies revealed an intraaxial, contrast-enhancing lesion in the right temporal lobe. After gross-total removal of the tumor, histological examination revealed a transitional meningioma with surrounding neural parenchyma and features of meningioangiomatosis. Although there were no signs of anaplasia, necrosis, or increased mitosis, tumor islands were observed in the adjacent neuropil. The rare association of meningioangiomatosis and meningioma is discussed, along with radiological and surgical findings. ( info)

3/61. Aggressive metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma with anaplastic transformation arising from a long-standing goiter in a patient with Pendred's syndrome.

    In this article we describe detailed pathological and molecular genetics studies in a consanguineous kindred with Pendred's syndrome. The index patient was a 53-year-old female patient with congenital deafness and goiter. Her parents were first-degree cousins. She had a large goiter (150 g) that had been present since childhood. One of her sisters and a niece are also deaf and have goiter as well. The presence of Pendred's syndrome was confirmed by a positive perchlorate test and the demonstration of a Mondini malformation. thyroid function tests (under levothyroxine [LT4] therapy) were in the euthyroid range with a thyrotropin [TSH] level of 2.8 microU/mL (0.2-3.2), a serum total thyroxine (T4) of 90 nmol/L (54-142), and a serum total triiodothyronine (T3) of 2.7 nmol/L (0.8-2.4). Total thyroidectomy was performed, and the mass in the right lobe was found to have invaded adjacent tissues. The histopathological findings were consistent with a follicular carcinoma with areas of anaplastic transformation and lung metastasis. The patient was treated twice with 100 mCi 131iodine (3,700 MBq) and received suppressive doses of LT4. Postoperatively, the serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels remained markedly elevated (2,352 to 41,336 ng/mL). The patient died of a sudden severe episode of hemoptysis. sequence analysis of the PDS gene performed with dna from the two relatives with Pendred's syndrome revealed the presence of a deletion of thymidine 279 in exon 3, a point mutation that results in a frameshift and a premature stop codon at codon 96 in the pendrin molecule. We concluded that prolonged TSH stimulation because of iodine deficiency or dyshormonogenesis in combination with mutations of oncogenes and/or tumor suppressor genes, may result in the development of follicular thyroid carcinomas that undergo transformation into anaplastic cancers. It is likely that these pathogenetic mechanisms have been involved in the development of aggressive metastatic thyroid cancer in this unusual patient with Pendred's syndrome. ( info)

4/61. bloom syndrome in sibs: first reports of hepatocellular carcinoma and wilms tumor with documented anaplasia and nephrogenic rests.

    The triad of small body size, immunodeficiency, and sun-sensitive facial erythema characterizes the phenotype bloom syndrome (BS), a rare autosomal recessive disorder with a striking predisposition to multiple types of cancers that arise earlier than expected in the general population. Here we report two sibs with BS. The older, a 15-year-old-girl, developed a hepatocellular carcinoma, a neoplasm not yet reported in association with BS. Her younger brother developed an anaplastic wilms tumor (WT) associated with nephrogenic rests at the age of 31/2 years, and this was followed by a myelodysplastic syndrome. Complex cytogenetic abnormalities were identified in all three neoplasms. These examples expand the spectrum of malignancies occurring in BS to include liver cell neoplasms, and confirm the association of nephrogenic rests with WT, even in the setting of BS. ( info)

5/61. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma deciduoid or anaplastic variant? Point to ponder.

    A case of peritoneal mesothelioma displaying unusual morphology, occurring in a 53 year old woman is described. The role of immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy in the evaluation of this tumor is stressed. The appropriate terminology to be used and possible etiologic factor are also discussed. ( info)

6/61. Anaplastic ganglioglioma with sarcomatous component: an immunohistochemical study and molecular analysis of p53 tumor suppressor gene.

    The present case report describes a case of ganglioglioma with a distinct sarcomatous component in the left temporal lobe of a 59-year-old Japanese man. Neoplastic neuroglial tissue contained both benign and anaplastic glial components with a MIB-1 labeling index of 0.1% and 12.0%, respectively. Sarcomatous tissue adjacent to the anaplastic glial tissue was dominated by pleomorphic fibroblastic cells with a MIB-1 labeling index of 10.8%. They were immunoreactive for smooth muscle actin, type IV collagen, and alpha 1 antitrypsin, but not for desmin and CD34. Interestingly, some of the sarcomatous cells were double-positive for smooth muscle actin and GFAP. The p53 protein had accumulated in the anaplastic astrocytes and sarcomatous cells, but direct dna sequencing of PCR products failed to detect any mutation in the p53 gene (from exon 4 to exon 10). ( info)

7/61. Hyaluronan synthesis by anaplastic large cell lymphoma with massive lymphomatous effusion. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: Hyaluronan (HA) synthesis is frequently observed in malignant mesothelioma cells, whereas it is rarely found in lymphoma cells. Previous studies have reported that a high HA concentration in the serum was related to poor prognosis in lymphomas, although the mechanism was not elucidated. We recently encountered a case of anaplastic large cell lymphoma with an HA-rich, massive, lymphomatous effusion. Several studies were performed to clarify the character of this unusual lymphoma and to observe whether the lymphoma cells synthesized HA. CASE: A 59-year-old female was admitted with abdominal pain. Radiologic studies revealed a pleural effusion and paraaortic lymph node swelling. A biopsied specimen was compatible with anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Detailed cytologic observations revealed that the lymphoma cells in the pleural effusion had alcian blue-positive, productive material in the prominent Golgi area and microvillous structures on the surface. Further studies found that most of the lymphoma cells had HA-binding protein and expressed CD44 antigen, a receptor for HA. In addition, the HA concentration in the supernatant of the primary culture cells was extremely high and increased time dependently. CONCLUSION: These observations suggest that the lymphoma cells synthesized and released HA. Interactions of the released HA and CD44 on the surface might play an important role in the peculiar serosal growth of lymphoma cells. ( info)

8/61. Glandular patterns in a thyroid carcinoma with insular and anaplastic features: a case with possible implications for the classification of thyroid carcinomas.

    We describe the case of a 33-year-old woman with a thyroid carcinoma showing poorly differentiated (insular), anaplastic, and glandular features, the latter with extensive clear cell changes. Grossly, the well-circumscribed tumor nodule measured 3.6 cm in maximum dimension and was confined to the thyroid. Microscopically, the majority of the tumor was composed of well-defined "insular" nests showing microfollicular formation, high mitotic activity, and areas of necrosis. Other regions, as well as the intervening stroma of the insular nests, were characterized by highly atypical and pleomorphic stromal cells, extensive necrosis, and malignant cartilaginous nodules. Approximately 30% of the tumor was composed of diffuse glandular formations, each of which were lined by elongated, simple columnar cells with basally situated, mildly pleomorphic nuclei, clear supranuclear, periodic acid-Schiff (and diastase sensitive) cytoplasm, empty lumens, and no myoepithelia or basement membranes. Immunohistochemically, the glandular elements displayed diffuse and strong positivity for thyroid transcription factor-1, bcl-2, and CAM 5.2, sparse positivity for thyroglobulin and Ki67, and diffuse but weak positivity for p53. calcitonin was negative throughout the tumor. Karyotypic analysis of a primary culture showed a complex hypertriploid karyotype including structural abnormalities of chromosomes X, 1, 4, 6, 9, 13, and 14 in the majority of cells examined. This composite of histologic findings, especially the glandular patterns, is unusual and their prognostic significance is unclear. The patient is alive with no evidence of tumor recurrence or metastasis at 5 months follow-up. overall, the morphologic and immunohistochemical properties of the glandular component suggests that they are less differentiated than well-differentiated carcinomas and are probably more differentiated than the insular component. This case supports the theory that the various primary carcinomas of the thyroid may represent points along a spectrum rather than distinct entities. ( info)

9/61. Non-functioning adrenal cortical carcinoma presenting with metastasis to the tongue.

    We report a case of non-functioning adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) presenting with metastatic disease to the tongue, which is an extremely uncommon onset for this neoplasm. Histologically, the lesion had the appearance of an anaplastic neoplasm, and a panel of immunohistochemical markers including vimentin, MART-1, S100 protein, HMB-45, smooth muscle actin, common muscle actin, desmin, CD31, CD34, CD68, EMA and cytokeratins, was helpful in excluding melanoma, as well as other mesenchymal and epithelial neoplasms. ( info)

10/61. Encapsulated anaplastic thyroid carcinoma without invasive phenotype with favorable prognosis: report of a case.

    We herein report a case of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in a 77-year-old woman with long-term disease-free survival. The tumor measured 7.5 x 6.0 cm in size and was diagnosed to be anaplastic carcinoma. We investigated the biological aggressiveness of this carcinoma by means of immunohistochemistry and found it have a high cell-proliferating activity, a disruption in the mechanism of apoptosis, and a high potential of cell spreading, similar to that observed in usual anaplastic carcinomas. The only unique point was that this tumor was encapsulated and no invasion of carcinoma cells beyond the capsule was microscopically observed. To avoid an obstruction of the trachea, a lobectomy without lymph node dissection was performed as a "palliative operation." Although neither adjuvant chemotherapy nor radiotherapy was carried out due to her age, she has nevertheless survived with no evidence of recurrence for 57 months after surgery. The presence of such a type of anaplastic carcinoma should thus be noted by surgeons and pathologists, even though the occurrence of such cases seems to be very rare. ( info)
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