Cases reported "Anemia, Aplastic"

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1/21. Late graft failure 8 years after first bone marrow transplantation for severe acquired aplastic anemia.

    A 14-year-old patient with acquired very severe aplastic anemia (VSAA) underwent bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from his HLA-identical brother. Preparative therapy was cyclophosphamide (CY) 200 mg/kg over 4 days. GVHD prophylaxis was with cyclosporin A (CsA) for a year. After an 8 year follow-up during which the patient was well with normal blood counts, graft failure occurred. At this time marrow chimerism studies demonstrated that 85% of hemopoiesis was of recipient origin. The patient was re-engrafted from the same donor after conditioning with CY 200 mg/kg over 4 days plus rabbit antithymocyte globulin (ATG) 3.5 mg/kg/day for 3 days. After 140 days follow-up he has a normal blood count. The possible causes of the graft failure are discussed. This case demonstrates that, although rarely, very late graft failure may occur after BMT for AA and highlights the need for long-term monitoring even in apparently successfully transplanted patients.
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2/21. Apparent cure of Graves-Basedow disease after sibling allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    Evidence that allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) can cure or alter the course of intractable autoimmune diseases comes from both extensive experimental work in animal models and anecdotal case reports in humans. We describe a female patient diagnosed as having severe aplastic anaemia (SAA), hyperthyroidism and ophthalmopathy of Graves-Basedow disease who received a BMT from her histocompatible sister. Fifty-three months after BMT, complete remission of hyperthyroidism and ocular signs persists. The SAA is cured and she is free of any chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). In the early post-BMT period, PCR analysis of bone marrow and peripheral blood cells confirmed a complete chimerism of donor origin. Thus, it is plausible to attribute the resolution of the patient's thyroid hyperfunction and opththalmopathy to the replacement of the host immune system.
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3/21. umbilical cord blood transplantation from unrelated HLA-matched donor in an adult with severe aplastic anemia.

    A 23-year-old male suffering from severe aplastic anemia (SAA) weighing 60 kg was successfully treated by unrelated allo-CBSCT (cord blood stem cell transplantation). A six-loci HLA-identical umbilical cord blood (UCB) was infused after conditioning with low-dose cyclophosphamide (CTX) and antilymphocyte globulin (ALG). The prophylaxis of GVHD consisted of CsA and MTX. The infused cord blood provided 1.89 x 10(7) nucleated cells per kg, CD34-positive cells: 0.89%. neutrophils >0.5 x 10(9)/l were reached 10 days after transplant, and platelets greater than 50.0 x 10(9)/l at day 26. RBC and platelet transfusion independence were reached on days 15 and 18. The patient developed grade 1 skin GVHD 10 months after engraftment of the donor cells. Microsatellite dna fingerprinting indicated a stable and persistent donor-recipient mixed chimerism, whilst the circulating red cells remain of host origin.
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4/21. Successful engraftment in two adult patients with severe aplastic anemia using nonmyeloablative conditioning followed by unrelated HLA-mismatched cord blood transplantation.

    umbilical cord blood as an alternative source of hematopoietic stem cells and nonmyeloablative conditioning are very exciting new developments in transplantation. We report here mixed chimerism in two adult patients with severe aplastic anaemia using nonmyeloablative conditioning and two-antigen mismatched cord blood transplantation resulting in satisfactory clinical response. Our results suggest that such transplant is possible with minimal toxicity.
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5/21. Hematopoietic cell transplantation from related and unrelated donors after minimal conditioning as a curative treatment modality for severe paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.

    Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare clonal disorder caused by a somatic mutation of the X-linked phosphatidylinositol glycan class A gene. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) after high-dose conditioning is the only curative treatment; however, it is associated with high treatment-related mortality. Here, we report on allogeneic HCT for PNH after minimal conditioning. Seven adult patients with high-risk PNH underwent peripheral blood HCT from HLA-A-, -B-, -C-, -DRB1-, and -DQB1-matched related (n = 2) and unrelated (n = 5) donors. Conditioning included fludarabine 30 mg/m(2)/d on days -4 to -2 and 2 Gy of total body irradiation on day 0. After HCT, patients were given immunosuppressive therapy with oral cyclosporine starting on day -3 and mycophenolate mofetil starting on day 0. All 7 patients attained durable engraftment. After 28 days, a median of 77% (range, 53%-96%) T-cell donor chimerism was found in bone marrow and peripheral blood. T-cell chimerism increased to 91% (range, 76%-100%) on day 180 and to 100% in all surviving patients after 12 months. All 7 patients attained complete remissions of their disease. Four patients are alive 13 to 38 months after HCT. Three patients died of treatment-related mortality, 1 because of complications after acute pancreatitis and multiorgan failure, 1 because of infection related to chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and 1 because of bleeding after liver biopsy for late subacute/chronic GVHD. Allogeneic HCT from related and unrelated donors after minimal conditioning is a new and potentially curative option for patients with advanced PNH.
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6/21. Successful non-T-cell-depleted nonmyeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (NST) from an HLA-haploidentical 2-loci-mismatched sibling in a heavily transfused patient with severe aplastic anemia based on the fetomaternal microchimerism.

    A 37-year-old Japanese man with systemic hemochromatosis due to multiple transfusions was referred to us for the treatment of severe aplastic anemia (SAA), from which he had been suffering for 24 years. The patient had diabetes arising from the hemochromatosis, chronic anal fissures, and a kidney abscess due to neutropenia. He was treated with a nonmyeloablative preconditioning regimen followed by non-T-cell-depleted (non-TCD) allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) from his human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-haploidentical 2-loci-mismatched sibling. Prompt engraftment of granulocytes and platelets was observed, and graft-versus-host disease was easy to control. Noninherited maternal antigens in the donor were confirmed prior to PBSCT, and they were also detected in small quantities in the recipient. This report describes the first successful nonmyeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplant in a heavily transfused SAA patient from an HLA-haploidentical 2-loci-mismatched sibling donor. The result suggests that a long-term fetomaternal microchimerism-positive sibling can be a second-line donor if an alternative HLA-identical donor is not available.
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7/21. Non-radiotherapy conditioning with stem cell transplantation from alternative donors in children with refractory severe aplastic anemia.

    Conditioning including total body/lymphoid irradiation is widely used to prevent graft rejection in patients with refractory severe aplastic anemia (SAA) undergoing hemopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from alternative donors and or after graft manipulation. To reduce regimen-related toxicity we transplanted three children with refractory SAA after conditioning with radiotherapy-free regimens. Conditioning included fludarabine 175-180 mg/m2 in all patients. In addition, patient 1 (failing two previous grafts) received thiotepa 10 mg/kg and Campath-1H 60 mg/m2; patient 2 cyclophosphamide 120 mg/kg, thiotepa 15 mg/kg and OKT-3 0.1 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks; and patient 3 cyclophosphamide 120 and ATG 90 mg/kg. Stem cell source was unmanipulated marrow from the same unrelated donor as for the two previous transplantations in patient 1 and CD34 -purified peripheral blood stem cells from an HLA-matched unrelated donor and from the haploidentical mother in patients 2 and 3. Only patient 1 received graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis with cyclosporine A and mycophenolate mofetil. Follow-up is now 30, 51, and 15 months. None of the patients developed GVHD. All patients have normal counts with complete donor chimerism. Fludarabine-based conditioning is powerfully immunosuppressive and may be used for children with refractory SAA undergoing HCT from alternative donors even after rejection following previous HCT.
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8/21. Five-month marrow aplasia in a child with refractory acute myeloid leukemia: successful management with continuous granulocyte support and reduced-intensity conditioning followed by matched unrelated bone marrow transplantation.

    A 10-year-old girl diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia FAB M4 failed to achieve remission following several courses of induction chemotherapy. From the first course of chemotherapy the patient had continuous marrow aplasia, managed by a total of 57 granulocyte transfusions. After reinduction and reduced-intensity conditioning including fludarabine, Campath-1H, and melphalan, the patient received unmanipulated marrow from an HLA-matched unrelated donor. Leukocyte and platelet engraftment was observed on day 18 and 50, respectively. Graft-versus-host disease did not occur. The patient is alive and well in complete remission 18 months after transplantation with complete donor chimerism.
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9/21. Successful unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation in children with Shwachman-diamond syndrome.

    Shwachman-diamond syndrome (SDS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by pancreatic insufficiency and variable degrees of neutropenia. SDS patients are at risk of developing myelodysplasia, aplastic anemia, and leukemic transformation. The role and timing of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in SDS remain controversial. We report three SDS patients with severe aplasia transplanted using unrelated umbilical cord blood (UCB). patients received melphalan (180 mg/m2), etoposide (1200 mg/m2), anti-thymocyte globulin (90 mg/kg), and total lymphoid irradiation (500 cGy); graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis consisted of cyclosporine and prednisone. Myeloid engraftment occurred promptly with absolute neutrophil count >500 cells/mm3 on day 15 /- 5 and all patients displayed 100% donor chimerism by 2 months post transplant. The major complication of transplant was GVHD, with all patients developing grade II or III acute GVHD, one progressing to chronic extensive GVHD. patients are alive 309, 623, and 2029 days post transplant. Factors important in HSCT outcome for SDS may include transplantation at a young age, avoidance of cyclophosphamide, and adequate GVHD prophylaxis. Importantly, these cases also suggest that unrelated UCB, in the absence of a matched family member, is an excellent alternative stem cell source for SDS patients undergoing HSCT.
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10/21. skin transplantation to monitor clinical donor-related tolerance in mixed hematopoietic chimerism.

    Mixed hematopoietic chimerism usually carries with it the tolerance to any other tissue from the same donor. Consequently, the establishment of a sustained chimerism may allow long-term acceptance of transplanted organs without immunosuppression. We report a girl with refractory severe aplastic anemia who developed low recipient level hematopoietic chimerism following transplantation of maternal highly purified CD34 cells without prophylactic immunosuppression. Renal thrombotic microangiopathy led to chronic renal failure and she received skin allografts from her mother in view of a future kidney donation. The maternal skin grafts were accepted without immunosuppression and the hematopoietic chimerism remained stable. skin transplantation may be a helpful and easily applicable tool to monitor donor-related tolerance in hematopoietic chimerism clinically. It should contribute to minimize the risks of subsequent solid organ transplantation from the same donor without immunosuppression.
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