Cases reported "Anemia, Aplastic"

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1/26. Successful cytokine treatment of aplastic anemia following living-related orthotopic liver transplantation for non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis.

    The relationship between aplastic anemia and viral hepatitis is well recognized, and such patients usually have a high mortality. We successfully treated a case of aplastic anemia following living-related orthotopic liver transplantation (LROLT) for non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis. A 2-yr-old boy with fulminant hepatic failure from non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis received LROLT. Before transplantation, he had pancytopenia which was probably hepatitis associated, and viral suppression was suspected after bone marrow (BM) biopsy. After the transplantation, he developed progressive pancytopenia and a diagnosis of aplastic anemia was made via BM biopsy. With immunosuppressant agents (cyclosporine, methylprednisolone), cytokine therapy (granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO)) was effectual and the patient recovered from pancytopenia. He was discharged from the hospital 57 d after the liver transplantation and remains well 1 yr after LROLT. Combined cytokine therapy with high doses of G-CSF, M-CSF and rhEPO appeared to be effective in the treatment of aplastic anemia following liver transplantation for non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis. Since M-CSF activates macrophages, it may have contributed to the graft rejection. Careful consideration should be given to the use of high-dose M-CSF in liver transplant patients.
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2/26. Correction of stromal cell defect after bone marrow transplantation in aplastic anaemia.

    Defects in stromal cell function have been demonstrated in a number of aplastic anaemia (AA) patients. Here we have studied a patient with severe AA and abnormal stromal cell function who underwent bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The objective of this study was to investigate the timing and the mechanism of correction of the stromal defect after transplantation. The patient, a 25-year-old woman with severe AA, underwent BMT from her brother. BM was obtained from the patient on five occasions: 2 weeks pre BMT, and 3, 8, 16 and 21 months post BMT. stromal cells were grown to confluence and recharged with purified CD34 cells from normal donors. The support of such cells, as assessed by weekly colony-forming assay (CFU) of non-adherent cells, was compared with that of stromal layers grown from normal BM. A novel technique of combined fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunocytochemistry was used to determine the origin of specific stromal cell types on cytospins of stroma post BMT. Stromal function was defective at 2 weeks pre BMT and at 3 months post BMT, but returned to normal at 8 and 16 months post BMT. At 21 months post BMT, stromal fibroblasts and endothelial cells were shown to be of recipient origin, and macrophages and T cells were of donor origin. We present here evidence in a case of severe AA for defective stromal function before BMT and delayed normalization of function after BMT. This correlated with engraftment of donor macrophages and T cells, but not fibroblasts and endothelial cells.
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3/26. vincristine therapy for severe platelet alloimmunization.

    A 19-month-old girl with idiopathic severe aplastic anemia refractory to multi-agent immunosuppressive therapy developed severe platelet alloimmunization following several months of platelet transfusions. She became refractory to human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched platelet transfusions and experienced frequent episodes of bleeding. She was treated with intravenous vincristine administered weekly for three doses and showed marked improvement in both clinical and laboratory response to platelet transfusions. When vincristine was held for 3 weeks, she again became refractory to HLA-matched platelet transfusion. Reinstitution of vincristine resulted in cessation of clinical bleeding and improved response to platelet transfusion. The mechanism of response likely involves selective delivery of cytotoxic drug to macrophages. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of alloimmune thrombocytopenia responsive to vincristine.
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4/26. Bone remodelling after growth factor and cyclosporine A therapy for aplastic anemia.

    We describe a patient with viral induced aplastic anemia who developed severe bone pain after treatment with multiple courses of antithymocyte globulin, cyclosporine A, recombinant human granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor and deferoxamine. Radiographs and bone biopsy revealed extensive new trabecular bone formation in long bone diaphyses and adjacent periosteal reaction. The effects of hematopoietic growth factors, cyclosporine A and deferoxamine on bone metabolism are reviewed.
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5/26. Differential dose-related haematological effects of GM-CSF in pancytopenia: evidence supporting the advantage of low- over high-dose administration in selected patients.

    granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a multifunctional haematopoietin which can promote production of several blood cell lineages, though the predominant target cells are neutrophils, monocytes, and their precursors. Occasional undesirable clinical effects include eosinophilia, an increase in blasts, or thrombocytopenia. Here, we describe four patients who were treated with GM-CSF, at subcutaneous doses significantly lower than are conventional, and experienced an unusual response pattern. Three patients had severe pancytopenia associated with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and exhibited an unexpected switch in the responsive lineage on high- versus very low-dose therapy. The two CLL patients developed marked eosinophilia (up to 10.0 x 10(9) cells/l) without an increase in neutrophils on 125-300 micrograms/m2/d of GM-CSF. In contrast, when the dose was lowered to 10 micrograms/m2/d, the neutrophils rose to physiological levels, without significant eosinophilia. The MDS patient showed a rapid rise in peripheral blasts (baseline level = 0; post-therapy level = 5.0 x 10(9)/l), without a change in other cell types, when receiving 60 micrograms/m2/d of GM-CSF. After GM-CSF was held, blasts returned to baseline levels; reinstituting therapy at the very low dose of 6 micrograms/m2/d was followed by an increase in platelet counts from 50 to 185 x 10(9)/l with only a minor increase in blasts. The fourth patient, who suffered from severe aplastic anaemia complicated by recurrent gastrointestinal haemorrhage, was only treated with the low-dose regimen. He showed a predominant platelet effect with counts rising from 9 to 169 x 10(9)/l. Very low-dose GM-CSF therapy was devoid of constitutional side effects. The biological implications of these GM-CSF responses are discussed. Our results indicate that, in some patients, GM-CSF may stimulate different target cells depending on the dose. Therefore, in contrast to the results of administration of many classical drugs, there may not always be a direct relationship between the amount of GM-CSF given and the optimal effect.
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6/26. diamond-Blackfan syndrome and neutropenia.

    neutropenia is a rare complication of diamond-Blackfan syndrome (congenital hypoplastic anaemia). Three patients are reported: all had neutropenia as well as anaemia, and to investigate the cause of the neutropenia culture of bone marrow for granulocyte-macrophage colony forming cells (GMCFCs) was performed. Two cases had a low incidence of GMCFCs, but the third case had a high incidence. These findings suggest that myeloid precursors can be abnormal in diamond-Blackfan syndrome and that the mechanism of neutropenia may, like that of anaemia, vary from patient to patient.
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7/26. Medullary histiocytosis following treatment of severe aplastic anemia with recombinant human interleukin-3 in combination with antilymphocyte globulin, cyclosporin A, and methylprednisolone.

    This case report describes the clinical use of recombinant human interleukin-3 as adjunct to immunosuppressive therapy with antilymphocyte globulin, cyclosporin A, and methylprednisolone for refractory severe aplastic anemia. Hematopoietic response to treatment was moderate and peripheral blood counts (neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, reticulocytes) increased only slightly. Unexpectedly, during the time of interleukin-3 administration a substantial bone marrow infiltration by macrophages became detectable, consistent with the diagnosis of medullary histiocytosis, that may have prevented recovery of normal hematopoiesis in this patient. This observation may indicate the need for careful use of interleukin-3 in patients with drug-induced immunodeficiency.
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8/26. In vivo recruitment of GM-CSF-response myelopoietic progenitor cells by interleukin-3 in aplastic anemia.

    Previous studies have indicated that colony-stimulating factors may stimulate myelopoiesis and thus increase the number of circulating white blood cells in patients with hematopoietic failure including aplastic anemia. However, long-term administration of the factor was required to maintain its response. In the present article we report on a patient with severe aplastic anemia undergoing treatment with recombinant human (rh) granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). After an initial response, the patient became refractory to GM-CSF. However, treatment with interleukin (IL)-3 restored responsiveness to GM-CSF, suggesting that IL-3 may have replenished the bone marrow with myelopoietic progenitor cells sensitive to the action of GM-CSF. This observation suggests the value of application of sequentially acting hematopoietic growth factors in aplastic anemia patients.
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9/26. Congenital hypoplastic (diamond-Blackfan) anemia in seven members of one kindred.

    Congenital hypoplastic (diamond-Blackfan) anemia is a rare macrocytic anemia, generally presenting during infancy or childhood. The condition usually occurs sporadically or in a pattern consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance, although autosomal dominant transmission has been proposed in some kindreds. We report the largest known kindred of congenital hypoplastic anemia, with at least 7 affected individuals over 3 generations, and propose that studies of this kindred may be useful for identifying the mechanism by which their genetic abnormality results in congenital hypoplastic anemia. Erythropoietic investigations on relatives show no inhibitors of erythropoiesis in serum, t-lymphocytes, or macrophages. Their erythroid progenitor cells (CFU-E and BFU-E) were generally quantitatively normal, and were capable of rapid proliferation, as judged by cell-cycle shortening. However, their erythroid progenitors displayed a relative insensitivity to recombinant erythropoietin, and produced relatively few normoblasts per erythroid progenitor cell. We propose that these and subsequent studies may be helpful in selecting candidate genes responsible for the molecular defect in this kindred.
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10/26. Fatal aplastic anemia in a child with Down's syndrome.

    An infant with Down's syndrome developed severe persistent neutropenia at the age of 9 months and fluctuating anemia and thrombocytopenia at one year of age which terminated as full-blown aplastic anemia at 26 months of age. Immunological evaluation revealed increased peripheral and bone marrow lymphocytes and impaired blood OKT4: OKT8 ratio. Bone marrow granulocyte-macrophage colony forming cells (GM-CFC) were markedly increased, while peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMN) produced normal numbers of colonies. The patient's PBMN and serum were both somewhat inhibitory to normal bone marrow derived GM-CFC, suggesting the existence of a suppressor activity both in his serum and PBMN. This unusual course of aplastic anemia and the abnormalities in T-cells and hematopoiesis in Down's syndrome are discussed.
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