Cases reported "Anemia, Aplastic"

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1/122. Successful cytokine treatment of aplastic anemia following living-related orthotopic liver transplantation for non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis.

    The relationship between aplastic anemia and viral hepatitis is well recognized, and such patients usually have a high mortality. We successfully treated a case of aplastic anemia following living-related orthotopic liver transplantation (LROLT) for non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis. A 2-yr-old boy with fulminant hepatic failure from non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis received LROLT. Before transplantation, he had pancytopenia which was probably hepatitis associated, and viral suppression was suspected after bone marrow (BM) biopsy. After the transplantation, he developed progressive pancytopenia and a diagnosis of aplastic anemia was made via BM biopsy. With immunosuppressant agents (cyclosporine, methylprednisolone), cytokine therapy (granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO)) was effectual and the patient recovered from pancytopenia. He was discharged from the hospital 57 d after the liver transplantation and remains well 1 yr after LROLT. Combined cytokine therapy with high doses of G-CSF, M-CSF and rhEPO appeared to be effective in the treatment of aplastic anemia following liver transplantation for non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis. Since M-CSF activates macrophages, it may have contributed to the graft rejection. Careful consideration should be given to the use of high-dose M-CSF in liver transplant patients.
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2/122. Severe aplastic anemia associated with human parvovirus B19 infection in a patient without underlying disease.

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19 virus) infection is known to induce aplastic crisis in patients with hemolytic anemia. In healthy subjects, B19 infection may sometimes cause mild pancytopenia, but these changes are transient and recovery is spontaneous. We report the first case of aplastic anemia in a previously healthy boy without any underlying diseases, following asymptomatic infection with the B19 virus. Laboratory examination initially showed thrombocytopenia, mild leukopenia in the peripheral blood, and severe hypoplastic bone marrow. Since pancytopenia developed and worsened progressively, immunosuppressive therapy was given, resulting in a complete remission. Despite the lack of an infectious prodrome, serological and histological analysis revealed an underlying infection with the B19 virus. Thus, B19 virus infection must be considered one of the causes of aplastic anemia in patients without underlying hemolytic anemia and an apparent episode of the viral infection.
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3/122. Syngeneic blood stem cell transplantation for infectious mononucleosis-related aplastic anaemia.

    A 17-year-old girl developed severe aplastic anaemia following an episode of infectious mononucleosis. Her identical twin sister underwent mobilization with filgrastim and subsequent leukapheresis for blood stem cell collection. The cells were freshly infused without prior immunosuppression. The patient became transfusion-independent and achieved a trilineage complete haematological response. Her engraftment lasted 6 months, but subsequently she relapsed with pancytopenia. The patient then received a second infusion of syngeneic blood stem cells, preceded by conditioning with cyclophosphamide and antithymocyte globulin. This led to durable trilineage haematological recovery still ongoing at 16 months after her second transplant.
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4/122. Acquired aplastic anemia secondary to perphenazine.

    Aplastic anemia, defined by the presence of pancytopenia and hypocellular bone marrow in the absence of any abnormal blood cells, is a serious complication of antipsychotic drug treatment. While hematological side effects from antipsychotic medications are rare, recent experience with clozapine, an atypical antipsychotic agent, has raised the awareness of clinicians to the serious and potentially fatal hematological changes that can occur with antipsychotic medications. A case of perphenazine-induced aplastic anemia in a 23-year-old schizophrenic man is reported.
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5/122. Aplastic anemia in a petrochemical factory worker.

    A petrochemical worker with aplastic anemia was referred to our hospital. He worked in a petroleum resin-producing factory and had been exposed to low-level benzene while packaging the powder resin and pouring lime into a deactivation tank. According to the yearly environmental survey of the working area, the airborne benzene level was approximately 0.28 ppm. Exposure to benzene, a common chemical used widely in industry, may progressively lead to pancytopenia, aplastic anemia, and leukemia. The hematotoxicity of benzene is related to the amount and duration of exposure. Most risk predictions for benzene exposures have been based on rubber workers who were exposed to high concentrations. In the petroleum industry, the concentration of benzene is relatively low, and there are disputes over the toxicity of low-level benzene because of a lack of evidence. In this paper we report the case of aplastic anemia induced by low-level benzene exposure.
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6/122. Bone marrow aplasia with prominent atypical plasmacytic proliferation preceding acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    A two-year-old boy presented with pancytopenia. bone marrow examination revealed an aplastic marrow with prominent immature plasma cell proliferation, which mimicked plasma cell leukemia. immunohistochemistry, however, revealed a polyclonal population consistent with a reactive process, excluding plasma cell neoplasia. Administration of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor resulted in recovery of normal hematopoiesis with resolution of plasmacytosis. Seven months later, the patient had an elevated white blood cell count and bone marrow findings diagnostic of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. To the best of our knowledge this is the first reported case of bone marrow aplasia with prominent polyclonal plasmacytosis presenting as a prodrome of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in childhood.
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7/122. Asplenia in a patient with Fanconi's anemia-like congenital aplastic anemia.

    Fanconi's anemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive disease manifested by pancytopenia resulting from bone marrow failure, variable physical anomalies and cancer susceptibility. A seven-year-old girl with Fanconi's anemia-like congenital aplastic anemia and concurrent asplenia without the congenital heart defects or the abdominal heterotaxia is reported. Asplenia was indicated using denatured red cells labelled with 51Cr, abdominal ultrasonography and computerized tomography. Immunological studies showed immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, IgM), C3 and C4 levels within normal limits and the percentage of CD3, and C4 cells and the CD4/CD8 ratio decreased. The patient had not been exposed to recurrent pneumococcal infections. We think that isolated asplenia may occur in patients with Fanconi's anemia-like congenital aplastic anemia without the congenital heart diseases or abdominal heterotaxia.
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8/122. Aplastic anemia: current concepts and dental management.

    Aplastic anemia (AA) is a rare blood dyscrasia in which the peripheral blood cells are decreased because of bone marrow failure. The clinical course reflects the severity of pancytopenia and is unpredictable for the individual. hemorrhage and infection remain the major threats to these patients. Recent advances in transfusion medicine, infection management, bone marrow transplantation, and immunosuppressive therapy have improved survival of patients with AA. oral manifestations of AA are common and may have serious sequelae. Two cases of acute periodontal infection associated with AA are presented. Dental management guidelines are presented in the context of interdisciplinary care.
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9/122. Hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia and transfusion-transmitted virus infection.

    A 17-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of severe acute hepatitis. Serologic studies were negative for A, B, C and G hepatitis viruses. Later, he was found to be positive for transfusion-transmitted virus (TTV) dna. He was discharged after normalization of liver function tests. Four months after the onset of hepatitis, he was re-admitted because of pancytopenia. Bone marrow findings were consistent with aplastic anemia. The anemia responded to steroid therapy. In this case, TTV was probably involved in the development of aplastic anemia.
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10/122. Prolonged bone marrow failure with monosomy 7 after engraftment failure following bone marrow transplantation.

    A patient with acute myelogenous leukemia developed prolonged bone marrow failure along with the monosomy 7 chromosome abnormality. The patient had undergone bone marrow transplantation with CD34 selection following induction failure. However, she then suffered engraftment failure and long-term pancytopenia. Her white blood cell count gradually increased with supportive therapy including granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), and chromosomal analysis of bone marrow cells revealed an abnormal karyotype. Thirty months after the bone marrow transplantation we observed monosomy 7 together with the existing chromosomal abnormality in the patient's bone marrow cells. It has been reported that some patients with idiopathic and posthepatitis aplastic anemia develop clonal disorders such as myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myelogenous leukemia with monosomy 7. The findings in our case suggest that the appearance of monosomy 7 in patients with aplastic anemia may be caused by prolonged low-level hematopoiesis, with or without G-CSF stimulation.
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