Cases reported "Anemia, Iron-Deficiency"

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1/18. Watermelon-stomach as a cause of chronic iron deficiency anemia in a patient with systemic sclerosis.

    Watermelon-stomach is a rare cause of gastrointestinal bleeding. There has been an increasing number of reports on the association of this lesion with diseases of the scleroderma group, causing chronic, sometimes severe gastrointestinal blood loss. The present report presents the case of a 75-year-old female with limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis and watermelon-stomach, which was the cause of her long-standing sideropenic anemia.
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2/18. gastrointestinal tract evaluation in patients with iron deficiency anemia.

    Iron deficiency anemia is the most common form of anemia encountered in clinical practice and is an extremely common manifestation of chronic occult gastrointestinal bleeding. Current evidence suggests that a large proportion of men and postmenopausal women with iron deficiency anemia harbor significant gastrointestinal tract pathological lesions as the source of blood loss. As such, the evaluation of patients with iron deficiency anemia is generally focused on the gastrointestinal tract. Importantly, the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia should be firmly established before an extensive evaluation is undertaken. Management strategies for patients with iron deficiency anemia are reviewed; an important general point is that clinical features (ie, symptoms) may help direct specific investigation. The role of small-intestinal investigation in patients with iron deficiency anemia is controversial and should probably be reserved for patients with iron deficiency anemia and persistent gastrointestinal symptoms or those who fail to respond to appropriate therapy. The treatment and prognosis of patients with iron deficiency anemia and the majority of gastrointestinal tract lesions are straightforward. However, patients with vascular ectasias as the source of blood loss can represent a true management challenge.
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3/18. Oral iron cutaneous adverse reaction and successful desensitization.

    BACKGROUND: The oral administering of iron preparations sometimes produces adverse gastrointestinal effects. In contrast, cutaneous reactions are extremely rare. OBJECTIVE: We report a patient with several episodes of generalized pruritus and erythematous maculopapular eruption after receiving oral compounds of iron and on whom desensitization with oral iron was attempted. methods: We studied a female with microcytic anemia due to gynecologic blood loss who presented several episodes of cutaneous eruption after receiving oral compounds of iron. skin prick-test and two simple-blind, placebo-controlled oral challenges were performed with various iron compounds, and finally desensitization with oral iron was carried out. RESULTS: skin prick-test and patch-test with iron preparations were negative. Two simple-blind, placebo-controlled oral challenges were performed and the patient began experiencing similar cutaneous symptoms. We started a slow desensitization protocol using increasing doses until the target amount of the drug was tolerated without adverse effects. The chronic administration of oral iron therapy once a day for 9 months sustained the desensitized state and the anemia disappeared. CONCLUSION: We present methods to effectively manage iron supply for a microcytic anemia patient with cutaneous reactions due to oral iron compounds, to avoid repeated transfusions, slow desensitization with oral iron was successfully attempted.
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4/18. Enteroscopy as a tool for diagnosing gastrointestinal bleeding requiring blood transfusion.

    Iron-deficiency anemia secondary to gastrointestinal blood loss is a common cause of hospitalization. In many cases, the bleeding site cannot be defined despite thorough routine examination of the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to evaluate push enteroscopy as a diagnostic tool in patients with severe anemia, secondary to recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding, that required management by transfusion. Thirty-five consecutive push enteroscopy investigations were performed in 1998 and 1999 on 25 patients (15 men, 10 women). Mean age was 57 /- 16 years (range, 33-83). All patients had received blood transfusions because of pronounced anemia secondary to gastrointestinal bleeding. Before push enteroscopy, all patients had been investigated with esophagogastroduodenoscopy, colonoscopy, and small-bowel radiography using the double contrast technique; no bleeding site was found. In addition, 10 of 25 patients had been investigated beforehand with 99mTc-labelled red blood cell scintigraphy, and 5 of 25 with scintigraphy for meckel diverticulum. Two patients were also investigated with angiography before the push enteroscopy, and in six patients an additional total intraoperative enteroscopy was performed, preceded by a new colonoscopy, esophagogastroduodenoscopy, and push enteroscopy. A bleeding site was disclosed in 15 of 25 (60%) patients. In 7 of 25 patients (28%) the bleeding site was found in the stomach or esophagus. even though the patients had undergone one or two esophagogastroduodenoscopies earlier with normal findings. Total intraoperative enteroscopy identified a bleeding site in four of six (67%) patients studied. Two patients had bleeding hemangiomas that were resected surgically. Two patients had small intestinal adenomas, one with adenocarcinoma in situ. Push enteroscopy performed with an overtube inserted under fluoroscopic guidance is an important diagnostic tool in patients in whom conventional examinations do not disclose bleeding sites. Interestingly, 28% of patients had bleeding within reach of the gastroscope, indicating that a new upper endoscopy should be recommended before push enteroscopy is performed. When no positive findings are seen on push enteroscopy and the patient is affected by severe, recurrent iron-deficiency anemia, total intraoperative enteroscopy should be considered.
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5/18. Chronic subcutaneous octreotide decreases gastrointestinal blood loss in blue rubber-bleb nevus syndrome.

    BACKGROUND: A patient affected by blue rubber-bleb nevus syndrome had chronic gastrointestinal bleeding requiring weekly blood transfusions. Despite multiple surgical and endoscopic procedures to treat the venous malformations, the patient continued to bleed primarily from lesions in the small bowel. Therefore, this patient was treated with octreotide, a somatostatin analog known to decrease splanchnic blood flow and that is used for acute and chronic gastrointestinal bleeding. methods: octreotide therapy, 5.7 microg/kg subcutaneously twice daily, was initiated, and the patient was followed up clinically. Complete blood counts, blood glucose concentration, pancreatic enzyme concentration, liver function tests, and growth hormone concentration were monitored during treatments. RESULTS: During the 4 weeks after initiation of octreotide therapy, hemoglobin concentration was maintained without the need for transfusions. octreotide decreased the patient's monthly need for blood transfusion from 52 /- 7 mL. kg-1. mo-1 of packed red blood cells to 23 /- 7 mL. kg-1. mo-1. She had no detectable side effects or growth inhibition. Other medical interventions including -epsilonaminocaproic acid, nadolol, and total parenteral nutrition with bowel rest were not as effective as octreotide alone. CONCLUSION: octreotide decreased the patient's need for blood transfusions. Possible mechanisms include altering blood flow to the gastrointestinal tract and direct effects on the venous malformations.
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6/18. plummer-vinson syndrome associated with chronic blood loss anemia and large diaphragmatic hernia.

    The coexistence of large diaphragmatic hernia and plummer-vinson syndrome in two patients is described. It is proposed that the hernias caused chronic blood loss anemia, and that iron deficiency then resulted in postcricoid web formation.
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7/18. mitral valve prolapse with pulmonary haemosiderosis and severe anaemia: cause or association?

    A 12 years boy presented with the history of pallor for one month. Two days before hospitalisation he developed fever, cough, shortness of breath. He had past history of such episode.On examination, his heart rate was found to be 120/minute, respiratory rate 40/minute and moderate anaemia was detected. Scattered creptus was audible over mid and lower lung fields and a soft systolic murmur was auscultated at apex. On investigations, Hb was found as 4.6 g/dl and HbF was less than 2%. plasma Hb was 5 g/dl. Straight x-ray chest showed bilateral patchy opacities over mid and lower zones. His sputum was found to be blood stained and prompted the possibility of blood loss occurring in the lungs, which was confirmed by demonstrating haemosiderin laden macrophages on three consecutive sputum specimens. echocardiography revealed a systolic displacement of mitral valve leaflets into the left atrium with co-optation superior to the plane of mitral annulus. Doppler study showed a minimal late systolic regurgitation. It was decided to treat the case as idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis. oxygen inhalation, hypertonic saline nebulisation, i.v. hydrocortisone, packed cell transfusion followed by oral prednisolone improved the patient's condition. After 3 months of discontinuing prednisolone, he remained asymptomatic. Here one case of pulmonary haemosiderosis characterised by abnormal accumulation of haemosiderin in the lungs following repeated alveolar haemorrhages with the presence of mitral valve prolapse is reported.
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keywords = blood loss, haemorrhage
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8/18. A puzzling case of anemia.

    BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency anemia in adults is most frequently due to chronic blood loss. When the clinical course is complicated by sudden, severe declines in Hb concentration, the cause, nature, and lo- cation of bleeding may require an extensive clinical evaluation. CASE REPORT: A 39-year-old woman was admitted for management of refractory hypoparathyroidism related to total thyroidectomy for Graves' disease. Two weeks before admission, her Hb level was 7.0 g per dL. Despite transfusion with four units of RBCs during this interval, her admission Hb level was 5.7 g per dL. There was no evidence of blood loss or hemolysis. Laboratory values were consistent with an iron-deficient state. The patient's hospital course included repeated instances of sharp Hb drop and appropriate but unsustained response to RBC transfusion. Extensive work-up identified no occult source of bleeding. Clinical suspicion raised the possibility of self-inflicted blood loss. The patient subsequently admitted to repeatedly drawing blood from her indwelling catheter and discarding it in the lavatory. CONCLUSION: munchausen syndrome should be considered in cases of unexplained anemia, especially in the target demographic group: young, female, healthcare professionals. early diagnosis may prevent morbidity, multiple hospitalizations, and the risk of invasive diagnostic procedures.
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keywords = blood loss
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9/18. Refractory iron deficiency anemia as the primary clinical manifestation of celiac disease.

    In the absence of dietary insufficiency, iron deficiency is usually caused by chronic blood loss or intestinal malabsorption. celiac disease is one of the most common causes of intestinal malabsorption during childhood, and its association with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus has been previously reported. Here the authors describe an otherwise asymptomatic diabetic adolescent boy with iron deficiency anemia that was not responsive to oral iron therapy. A diagnosis of celiac disease was made based on both anti-endomysial antibody titers and small intestinal biopsy. Institution of a gluten-free diet resulted in correction of the anemia. These observations emphasize the importance of considering a diagnosis of celiac disease in patients with nonresponsive iron deficiency anemia, particularly in the setting of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
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10/18. A 69-year-old woman with persistent iron deficiency anemia.

    In women, iron deficiency anemia-a result of chronic iron loss-is most common during the reproductive years because of physiologic demands such as menstrual blood losses and pregnancy. In other cases, iron deficiency anemia is generally attributed to occult gastrointestinal bleeding. Common causes of chronic gastrointestinal blood loss include erosive esophagitis, gastric and duodenal ulcers, vascular ectasias, colon adenomas, and cancers. Bleeding from the small intestine at sites beyond the duodenal bulb is uncommon. The lesions of the small intestine are responsible for approximately 4% of gastrointestinal bleeding [7]. In this report we describe a case of persistent iron deficiency anemia due to carcinoid tumor of the small intestine.
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